RubyMoney - Money

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:warning: Please read the migration notes before upgrading to a new major version.

If you miss String parsing, check out the new monetize gem.


See the Contribution Guidelines


A Ruby Library for dealing with money and currency conversion.


  • Provides a Money class which encapsulates all information about an certain amount of money, such as its value and its currency.
  • Provides a Money::Currency class which encapsulates all information about a monetary unit.
  • Represents monetary values as integers, in cents. This avoids floating point rounding errors.
  • Represents currency as Money::Currency instances providing a high level of flexibility.
  • Provides APIs for exchanging money from one currency to another.



  • Your app must use UTF-8 to function with this library. There are a number of non-ASCII currency attributes.
  • This app requires JSON. If you’re using JRuby < 1.7.0 you’ll need to add gem "json" to your Gemfile or similar.


Install stable releases with the following command:

gem install money

The development version (hosted on Github) can be installed with:

git clone git://
cd money
rake install


``` ruby require ‘money’

10.00 USD

money =, “USD”) money.cents #=> 1000 money.currency #=>“USD”)

Comparisons, “USD”) ==, “USD”) #=> true, “USD”) ==, “USD”) #=> false, “USD”) ==, “EUR”) #=> false, “USD”) !=, “EUR”) #=> true

Arithmetic, “USD”) +, “USD”) ==, “USD”), “USD”) -, “USD”) ==, “USD”), “USD”) / 5 ==, “USD”), “USD”) * 5 ==, “USD”)

Unit to subunit conversions

Money.from_amount(5, “USD”) ==, “USD”) # 5 USD Money.from_amount(5, “JPY”) ==, “JPY”) # 5 JPY Money.from_amount(5, “TND”) ==, “TND”) # 5 TND

Currency conversions

some_code_to_setup_exchange_rates, “USD”).exchange_to(“EUR”) ==, “EUR”)

Swap currency, “USD”).with_currency(“EUR”) ==, “EUR”)

Formatting (see Formatting section for more options), “USD”).format #=> “$1.00”, “GBP”).format #=> “£1.00”, “EUR”).format #=> “€1.00” ```


Currencies are consistently represented as instances of Money::Currency. The most part of Money APIs allows you to supply either a String or a Money::Currency.

ruby, "USD") ==,"USD")), "EUR").currency =="EUR")

A Money::Currency instance holds all the information about the currency, including the currency symbol, name and much more.

ruby currency =, "USD").currency currency.iso_code #=> "USD" #=> "United States Dollar"

To define a new Money::Currency use Money::Currency.register as shown below.

``` ruby curr = { priority: 1, iso_code: “USD”, iso_numeric: “840”, name: “United States Dollar”, symbol: “$”, subunit: “Cent”, subunit_to_unit: 100, decimal_mark: “.”, thousands_separator: “,” }

Money::Currency.register(curr) ```

The pre-defined set of attributes includes:

  • :priority a numerical value you can use to sort/group the currency list
  • :iso_code the international 3-letter code as defined by the ISO 4217 standard
  • :iso_numeric the international 3-digit code as defined by the ISO 4217 standard
  • :name the currency name
  • :symbol the currency symbol (UTF-8 encoded)
  • :subunit the name of the fractional monetary unit
  • :subunit_to_unit the proportion between the unit and the subunit
  • :decimal_mark character between the whole and fraction amounts
  • :thousands_separator character between each thousands place

All attributes except :iso_code are optional. Some attributes, such as :symbol, are used by the Money class to print out a representation of the object. Other attributes, such as :name or :priority, exist to provide a basic API you can take advantage of to build your application.


The priority attribute is an arbitrary numerical value you can assign to the Money::Currency and use in sorting/grouping operation.

For instance, let’s assume your Rails application needs to render a currency selector like the one available here. You can create a couple of custom methods to return the list of major currencies and all currencies as follows:

``` ruby # Returns an array of currency id where # priority < 10 def major_currencies(hash) hash.inject([]) do |array, (id, attributes)| priority = attributes[:priority] if priority && priority < 10 array[priority] ||= [] array[priority] « id end array end.compact.flatten end

Returns an array of all currency id

def all_currencies(hash) hash.keys end

major_currencies(Money::Currency.table) # => [:usd, :eur, :gbp, :aud, :cad, :jpy]

all_currencies(Money::Currency.table) # => [:aed, :afn, :all, …] ```

Default Currency

By default Money defaults to USD as its currency. This can be overwritten using:

ruby Money.default_currency ="CAD")

If you use Rails, then config/initializers/money.rb is a very good place to put this.

Currency Exponent

The exponent of a money value is the number of digits after the decimal separator (which separates the major unit from the minor unit). See e.g. ISO 4217 for more information. You can find the exponent (as an Integer) by

ruby"USD").exponent # => 2"JPY").exponent # => 0"MGA").exponent # => 1

Currency Lookup

To find a given currency by ISO 4217 numeric code (three digits) you can do

ruby Money::Currency.find_by_iso_numeric(978) #=>

Currency Exchange

Exchanging money is performed through an exchange bank object. The default exchange bank object requires one to manually specify the exchange rate. Here’s an example of how it works:

``` ruby Money.add_rate(“USD”, “CAD”, 1.24515) Money.add_rate(“CAD”, “USD”, 0.803115)

Money.us_dollar(100).exchange_to(“CAD”) # =>, “CAD”) Money.ca_dollar(100).exchange_to(“USD”) # =>, “USD”) ```

Comparison and arithmetic operations work as expected:

``` ruby, “USD”) <=>, “USD”) # => 1; 9.00 USD is smaller, “EUR”) +, “EUR”) ==, “EUR”)

Money.add_rate(“USD”, “EUR”, 0.5), “EUR”) +, “USD”) ==, “EUR”) ```

Exchange rate stores

The default bank is initialized with an in-memory store for exchange rates.

ruby Money.default_bank =

You can pass you own store implementation, ie. for storing and retrieving rates off a database, file, cache, etc.

ruby Money.default_bank =

Stores must implement the following interface:

```ruby # Add new exchange rate. # @param [String] iso_from Currency ISO code. ex. ‘USD’ # @param [String] iso_to Currency ISO code. ex. ‘CAD’ # @param [Numeric] rate Exchange rate. ex. 0.0016 # # @return [Numeric] rate. def add_rate(iso_from, iso_to, rate); end

Get rate. Must be idempotent. ie. adding the same rate must not produce duplicates.

# @param [String] iso_from Currency ISO code. ex. ‘USD’ # @param [String] iso_to Currency ISO code. ex. ‘CAD’ # # @return [Numeric] rate. def get_rate(iso_from, iso_to); end

Iterate over rate tuples (iso_from, iso_to, rate)

# # @yieldparam iso_from [String] Currency ISO string. # @yieldparam iso_to [String] Currency ISO string. # @yieldparam rate [Numeric] Exchange rate. # # @return [Enumerator] # # @example # store.each_rate do |iso_from, iso_to, rate| # puts [iso_from, iso_to, rate].join # end def each_rate(&block); end

Wrap store operations in a thread-safe transaction

# (or IO or Database transaction, depending on your implementation) # # @yield [n] Block that will be wrapped in transaction. # # @example # store.transaction do # store.add_rate(‘USD’, ‘CAD’, 0.9) # store.add_rate(‘USD’, ‘CLP’, 0.0016) # end def transaction(&block); end

Serialize store and its content to make Marshal.dump work.

# # Returns an array with store class and any arguments needed to initialize the store in the current state.

@return [Array] [class, arg1, arg2]

def marshal_dump; end ```

The following example implements an ActiveRecord store to save exchange rates to a database.

```ruby # rails g model exchange_rate from:string to:string rate:float

for Rails 5 replace ActiveRecord::Base with ApplicationRecord

class ExchangeRate < ActiveRecord::Base def self.get_rate(from_iso_code, to_iso_code) rate = find_by(from: from_iso_code, to: to_iso_code) rate.present? ? rate.rate : nil end

def self.add_rate(from_iso_code, to_iso_code, rate) exrate = find_or_initialize_by(from: from_iso_code, to: to_iso_code) exrate.rate = rate! end end ```

Now you can use it with the default bank.

```ruby Money.default_bank =

Add to the underlying store

Money.default_bank.add_rate(‘USD’, ‘CAD’, 0.9) # Retrieve from the underlying store Money.default_bank.get_rate(‘USD’, ‘CAD’) # => 0.9 # Exchanging amounts just works., ‘USD’).exchange_to(‘CAD’) #=> #<Money fractional:900 currency:CAD> ```

There is nothing stopping you from creating store objects which scrapes XE for the current rates or just returns rand(2):

ruby Money.default_bank =

You can also implement your own Bank to calculate exchanges differently. Different banks can share Stores.

ruby Money.default_bank =

If you wish to disable automatic currency conversion to prevent arithmetic when currencies don’t match:

ruby Money.disallow_currency_conversion!


The following is a list of Money.gem compatible currency exchange rate implementations.


There are several formatting rules for when Money#format is called. For more information, check out the formatting module source, or read the latest release’s rdoc version.

If you wish to format money according to the EU’s Rules for expressing monetary units in either English, Irish, Latvian or Maltese:

ruby m ='123', :gbp) # => #<Money fractional:123 currency:GBP> m.format(symbol: m.currency.to_s + ' ') # => "GBP 1.23"


By default, Money objects are rounded to the nearest cent and the additional precision is not preserved:

ruby Money.from_amount(2.34567).format #=> "$2.35"

To retain the additional precision, you will also need to set infinite_precision to true.

ruby Money.infinite_precision = true Money.from_amount(2.34567).format #=> "$2.34567"

To round to the nearest cent (or anything more precise), you can use the round method. However, note that the round method on a Money object does not work the same way as a normal Ruby Float object. Money’s round method accepts different arguments. The first argument to the round method is the rounding mode, while the second argument is the level of precision relative to the cent.

``` # Float 2.34567.round #=> 2 2.34567.round(2) #=> 2.35


Money.infinite_precision = true #=> “$0.0234567” #=> “$0.02”, 2).format #=> “$0.0235” ```

Ruby on Rails

To integrate money in a Rails application use money-rails.

For deprecated methods of integrating with Rails, check the wiki.


In order to localize formatting you can use I18n gem:

ruby Money.locale_backend = :i18n

With this enabled a thousands seperator and a decimal mark will get looked up in your I18n translation files. In a Rails application this may look like:

yml # config/locale/en.yml en: number: currency: format: delimiter: "," separator: "." # falling back to number: format: delimiter: "," separator: "."

For this example, "SEK").format will return 1,234,567.89 kr which otherwise would have returned 1 234 567,89 kr.

This will work seamlessly with rails-i18n gem that already has a lot of locales defined.

If you wish to disable this feature and use defaults instead:

ruby Money.locale_backend = nil


The current default behaviour always checks the I18n locale first, falling back to “per currency” localization. This is now deprecated and will be removed in favour of explicitly defined behaviour in the next major release.

If you would like to use I18n localization (formatting depends on the locale):

```ruby Money.locale_backend = :i18n

example (using default localization from rails-i18n):

I18n.locale = :en, ‘USD’).format # => $10,000.00, ‘EUR’).format # => €10,000.00

I18n.locale = :es, ‘USD’).format # => $10.000,00, ‘EUR’).format # => €10.000,00 ```

For the legacy behaviour of “per currency” localization (formatting depends only on currency):

```ruby Money.locale_backend = :currency

example:, ‘USD’).format # => $10,000.00, ‘EUR’).format # => €10.000,00 ```

In case you don’t need localization and would like to use default values (can be redefined using Money.default_formatting_rules):

```ruby Money.locale_backend = nil

example:, ‘USD’).format # => $10000.00, ‘EUR’).format # => €10000.00 ```


In case you’re working with collections of Money instances, have a look at money-collection for improved performance and accuracy.


If you don’t have some locale and don’t want to get a runtime error such as:

I18n::InvalidLocale: :en is not a valid locale

Set the following: ruby I18n.enforce_available_locales = false


Prior to v6.9.0 heuristic analysis of string input was part of this gem. Since then it was extracted in to money-heuristics gem.

Migration Notes

Version 6.0.0

  • The Money#dollars and Money#amount methods now return instances of BigDecimal rather than Float. We should avoid representing monetary values with floating point types so to avoid a whole class of errors relating to lack of precision. There are two migration options for this change:
    • The first is to test your application and where applicable update the application to accept a BigDecimal return value. This is the recommended path.
    • The second is to migrate from the #amount and #dollars methods to use the #to_f method instead. This option should only be used where Float is the desired type and nothing else will do for your application’s requirements.