Store::Digest - An RFC6920-compliant content-addressable store

There are a number of content-addressable stores out there. Git is one, Perkeep (née CamliStore) is another. Why another one? Well:

  1. RFC6920 URI interface: the primary way you talk to this thing is through ni:///… URIs.
  2. Multiple digest algorithms: every object in the store is identified by more than one cryptographic digest, as cryptographic digest algorithms tend to come and go.
  3. Network-optional: don't run another network service when an embedded solution will suffice.
  4. Rudimentary metadata: Aside from internal bookeeping information, store only the handful of facts that would enable a blob to be properly rendered in a Web browser without integrating another metadata source, and nothing else.
  5. Organizational memory: Retain a record, not only of every object currently in the store, but also every object that has ever been in the store.

How to use Store::Digest

require 'store/digest'
require 'pathname'
require 'uri/ni'

store = driver: :LMDB, dir: '/var/lib/store-digest'

objs = Pathname('~/Desktop').expand_path.glob(?*).map do |f|
  store.add f if f.file?
# congratulations, you have just copied all the stuff on your desktop.

# let's make an identifer

uri = URI::NI.compute 'some data'
# => #<URI::NI ni:///sha-256;EweZDmulyhRes16ZGCqb7EZTG8VN32VqYCx4D6AkDe4>

store.get uri
# => nil

# of course not because we didn't put the content in there, so let's do that:

store.add 'some data'
# => #<Store::Digest::Object:0x00007fa00d5ee3e0
#  @content=
#   #<Proc:0x00007fa00d5ee430:1 (lambda)>,
#  @ctime=2020-01-18 14:05:56 -0800,
#  @digests=
#   {:md5=>#<URI::NI ni:///md5;HlAhCgICSX-3m8OLat5sNA>,
#    :"sha-1"=>#<URI::NI ni:///sha-1;uvNFUf7LSKzD2oaOuF4bbayd41Y>,
#    :"sha-256"=>
#     #<URI::NI ni:///sha-256;EweZDmulyhRes16ZGCqb7EZTG8VN32VqYCx4D6AkDe4>,
#    :"sha-384"=>
#     #<URI::NI ni:///sha-384;qcYaFi9LVypj5rDitFrvRztzAn1ZBVWWakwJGFg3_3KhAZHBNuw_RhTXkU0dqCPw>,
#    :"sha-512"=>
#     #<URI::NI ni:///sha-512;4WRedJLwMvtixnTbdVAL57Jgv8DaqWWCHds_ikm10zeI7j8EZ0TiuVr7XD2PJQDFScqJ15_GiQiF0o4FUAdCTw>},
#  @dtime=nil,
#  @flags=0,
#  @mtime=2020-01-18 14:05:56 -0800,
#  @ptime=2020-01-18 14:05:56 -0800,
#  @size=9,
#  @type="text/plain">

store.get uri
# ...same thing...

The main operations are, of course, add, get, remove, and forget. I am currently working on a search which will match partial digests and metadata values.

For each object, immutable bookkeeping metadata include:

  • Size (bytes)
  • Added to store (timestamp)
  • Metadata modified (timestamp)
  • Blob deleted (timestamp if present)

User-manipulable metadata consists of:

  • Modification time (timestamp)
  • Content-type (MIME identifier, e.g. text/html)
  • Language (RFC5646 token, user-supplied, e.g. en-ca)
  • Character set (optional token, e.g. utf-8, iso-8859-1, windows-1252)
  • Content-encoding (optional token, e.g. gzip, deflate)
  • Flags (8-bit unsigned integer)

There are four flags, each with two bits of information:

  • Content-type
  • Character set
  • Content-encoding
  • Syntax

For each of these flags, the values 0 to 3 signify:

  1. Unverified
  2. Invalid
  3. Recheck validation
  4. Verified

These metadata fields are "user-manipulable" for an extremely loose definition of "user". The idea, in particular for the fields that have associated flags, is that any initial value is a claim that may be subsequently verified, by, for example, a separate maintenance daemon that scans newly-inserted objects and supplants their metadata with whatever it finds. For example, one could insert a compressed file of type application/x-gzip, and some other maintenance process could come along and realize that in fact the file is image/svg+xml with an encoding of gzip, but there is also a syntax error, so it should not be served without first attempting to repair it. Because of the enormous combination of types, encodings, and syntaxes, such a maintenance daemon is way out of scope for this project, despite being a desirable and likely future addition to it.

API Documentation

Generated and deposited in the usual place.


This package is intended to be the simplest possible substrate for managing opaque data segments in terms of their contents. The central ambition is to solidify a consistent interface for all the desired behaviour, and then subsequently expand that interface to different languages and platforms, including, when possible, adapters to existing content-addressable storage platforms.

This version is written in Ruby, and is the maturation of an earlier version written in Perl. Whereas the Perl implementation uses Berkeley DB to store its metadata, this version uses LMDB. Indeed, a subsidiary goal of this project is to define a pattern for lower-level database storage, and key-value stores in particular, such that complying digest store interfaces running on different programming languages can attach to the same storage repository.

The current implementation uses the file system store its blobs. It does so by taking the primary digest algorithm (sha-256 by default) of the given blob, encoding it as base-32 (to be case-insensitive), and transforming the first few bits into a hashed directory structure (similar to Git, though it uses hexadecimal encoding). Internally, the blob and metadata subsystems are decoupled, such that the two can be mixed and matched.

A note on storage efficiency

Unlike Git, which uses pigz (or rather, deflate) to compress its contents (along with a small amount of embedded metadata), objects in this system are stored as-is. This is deliberate: if you want to compress your objects, you should compress them before adding them to the store, and signal the fact that they are compressed in the metadata.

I have also elected to have the system designate a "primary" digest algorithm, which defaults to sha-256. Its binary representation is 32 bytes long. By all accounts, this is way too big for an internal identifier. This is how the original Perl version worked, and likely how I plan to keep it until I can work out the additional complexity of a shorter identifier (like an unsigned integer) which is guaranteed to be unique (namely, recycling discarded identifiers). For the time being however I am not worried, as storage is large and computers are fast.

Issues with hash collisions

MD5 and SHA-1 are both considered unsafe for the purposes of cryptographic integrity, since collision attacks have been demonstrated against both algorithms. (This is why neither is recommended as a primary key.)

Currently, this system does not support duplicate mappings from one digest algorithm to another. If two different blobs with the same hash are entered into the store, the second one will probably be ignored. I will probably change this eventually so smaller hashes can accommodate duplicate entries, as dumping crafted data into this system would likely be a convenient way to identify collision targets.

Future directions

The first order of business is to create a search function for the various metadata elements. Then, probably a Rack app to put this whole business online (much like the one I wrote in Perl). Following that, probably start poking around at that maintenance daemon I mentioned in the other section, and whatever else I think is a good idea.

Afterward, I will probably take the show on the road: write a version in Python and/or JavaScript, for example. Maybe look at other back-ends. We'll see.


When it is ready, you know how to do this:

$ gem install store-digest

Or, download it off


Bug reports and pull requests are welcome at the GitHub repository.

©2019 Dorian Taylor

This software is provided under the Apache License, 2.0.