Module: EBNF::LL1

Included in:
Base
Defined in:
lib/ebnf/ll1.rb,
lib/ebnf/ll1/lexer.rb,
lib/ebnf/ll1/parser.rb,
lib/ebnf/ll1/scanner.rb

Overview

This module extends Base to create metadata including branch, First/Follow, and other tables which is used by Parser to recognize examples of the associated grammar.

Branch Table

The Branch table is a hash mapping production rules to a hash relating terminals appearing in input to sequence of productions to follow when the corresponding input terminal is found. This allows either the seq primitive, where all terminals map to the same sequence of productions, or the alt primitive, where each terminal may map to a different production.

 BRANCH = {
   :alt => {
     "(" => [:seq, :_alt_1],
     :HEX => [:seq, :_alt_1],
     :O_RANGE => [:seq, :_alt_1],
     :RANGE => [:seq, :_alt_1],
     :STRING1 => [:seq, :_alt_1],
     :STRING2 => [:seq, :_alt_1],
     :SYMBOL => [:seq, :_alt_1],
   },
   ...
   :declaration => {
     "@pass" => [:pass],
     "@terminals" => ["@terminals"],
   },
   ...
 }

In this case the alt rule is seq ('|' seq)* can happen when any of the specified tokens appears on the input stream. The all cause the same token to be passed to the seq rule and follow with _alt_1, which handles the ('|' seq)* portion of the rule, after the first sequence is matched.

The declaration rule is @terminals' | pass using the alt primitive determining the production to run based on the terminal appearing on the input stream. Eventually, a terminal production is found and the token is consumed.

First/Follow Table

The First/Follow table is a hash mapping production rules to the terminals that may proceed or follow the rule. For example:

 FIRST = {
   :alt => [
     :HEX,
     :SYMBOL,
     :RANGE,
     :O_RANGE,
     :STRING1,
     :STRING2,
     "("],
   ...
 }

Terminals Table

This table is a simple list of the terminal productions found in the grammar. For example:

 TERMINALS = ["(", ")", "-",
   "@pass", "@terminals",
    :HEX, :LHS, :O_RANGE,:POSTFIX,
   :RANGE, :STRING1, :STRING2, :SYMBOL,"|"
 ].freeze

Cleanup Table

This table identifies productions which used EBNF rules, which are transformed to BNF for actual parsing. This allows the parser, in some cases, to reproduce star, plus, and opt rule matches. For example:

 CLEANUP = {
   :_alt_1 => :star,
   :_alt_3 => :merge,
   :_diff_1 => :opt,
   :ebnf => :star,
   :_ebnf_2 => :merge,
   :_postfix_1 => :opt,
   :seq => :plus,
   :_seq_1 => :star,
   :_seq_2 => :merge,
 }.freeze

In this case the ebnf rule was (declaration | rule)*. As BNF does not support a star operator, this is decomposed into a set of rules using alt and seq primitives:

 ebnf    ::= _empty _ebnf_2
 _ebnf_1 ::= declaration | rule
 _ebnf_2 ::= _ebnf_1 ebnf
 _ebnf_3 ::= ebnf

The _empty production matches an empty string, so allows for now value. _ebnf_2 matches declaration | rule (using the alt primitive) followed by ebnf, creating a sequence of zero or more declaration or alt members.

Defined Under Namespace

Modules: Parser Classes: Lexer, Scanner

Instance Attribute Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Instance Attribute Details

#branchHash{Symbol => Hash{String, Symbol => Array<Symbol>}} (readonly)

Branch table, represented as a recursive hash. The table is indexed by rule symbol, which in-turn references a hash of terminals (which are the first terminals of the production), which in turn reference the sequence of rules that follow, given that terminal as input

Returns:

  • (Hash{Symbol => Hash{String, Symbol => Array<Symbol>}})

93
94
95
# File 'lib/ebnf/ll1.rb', line 93

def branch
  @branch
end

#cleanupHash{Symbol => Symbol} (readonly)

EBNF Cleanup table

The list of terminals used in the grammar.

Returns:

  • (Hash{Symbol => Symbol})

110
111
112
# File 'lib/ebnf/ll1.rb', line 110

def cleanup
  @cleanup
end

#firstHash{Symbol => Array<String, Symbol>} (readonly)

First table

Returns:

  • (Hash{Symbol => Array<String, Symbol>})

98
99
100
# File 'lib/ebnf/ll1.rb', line 98

def first
  @first
end

#followHash{Symbol => Array<String, Symbol>} (readonly)

Follow table

Returns:

  • (Hash{Symbol => Array<String, Symbol>})

103
104
105
# File 'lib/ebnf/ll1.rb', line 103

def follow
  @follow
end

#passSymbol, String (readonly)

Pass expression

A Terminal symbol used for skipping whitespace and comments

Returns:

  • (Symbol, String)

124
125
126
# File 'lib/ebnf/ll1.rb', line 124

def pass
  @pass
end

#startSymbol (readonly)

Start symbol

The rule which starts the grammar

Returns:

  • (Symbol)

131
132
133
# File 'lib/ebnf/ll1.rb', line 131

def start
  @start
end

#terminalsArray<String, Symbol> (readonly)

Terminal table

The list of terminals used in the grammar.

Returns:

  • (Array<String, Symbol>)

117
118
119
# File 'lib/ebnf/ll1.rb', line 117

def terminals
  @terminals
end

Instance Method Details

#build_tablesObject

Generate parser tables, #branch, #first, #follow, and #terminals


295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
# File 'lib/ebnf/ll1.rb', line 295

def build_tables
  progress("build_tables") {
    "Terminals: #{ast.count {|r| r.terminal?}} " +
    "Non-Terminals: #{ast.count {|r| r.rule?}}"
  }

  @first = ast.
    select(&:first).
    inject({}) {|memo, r|
      memo.merge(r.sym => r.first)
    }
  @follow = ast.
    select(&:follow).
    inject({}) {|memo, r|
      memo.merge(r.sym => r.follow)
    }

  @cleanup = ast.
    select(&:cleanup).
    inject({}) {|memo, r| memo.merge(r.sym => r.cleanup)}

  @terminals = ast.map {|r| Array(r.first) + Array(r.follow)}.flatten.uniq
  @terminals = (@terminals - [:_eps, :_eof]).sort_by{|t| t.to_s.sub(/^_/, '')}
  # FIXME: assumes that this is a (seq :PASS), or similar
  if pass = ast.detect {|r| r.pass?}
    @pass = pass.expr.last
  end

  # If a generated terminal is found, this indicates an error, as this version does not automatically generate regular expressions for automatic terminals
  @terminals.
    select {|t| t.to_s.start_with?("_")}.
    reject {|t| t.to_s.start_with?("_pass_")}.  # Concession to backwards compatibility
    each do |term|

    error("build_tables",
          "terminal #{term} is automatically generated; " +
          "regular expressions are not yet generated and parsing " +
          "is not supported")
  end

  @branch = {}
  @already = []
  @agenda = []
  Array(@starts).each do |start|
    do_production(start)
    while !@agenda.empty?
      x = @agenda.shift
      do_production(x)
    end
  end

  if !@errors.empty?
    progress("###### FAILED with #{errors.length} errors.")
    @errors.each {|s| progress("  #{s}")}
    raise "Table creation failed with errors"
  else
    progress("Ok for predictive parsing")
  end 
end

#first_follow(*starts) ⇒ EBNF

Create first/follow for each rule using techniques defined for LL(1) parsers.

This takes rules which have transformed into BNF and adds first/follow and otehr information to the rules to allow the generation of metadata tables used for driving a parser.

Given an initial rule in EBNF:

(rule enbf "1" (star declaration rule))

The BNF transformation becomes:

(rule ebnf "1" (alt _empty _ebnf_2))
(rule _ebnf_1 "1.1" (alt declaration rule))
(rule _ebnf_2 "1.2" (seq _ebnf_1 ebnf))
(rule _ebnf_3 "1.3" (seq ebnf))

After running this method, the rules are annotated with first/follow and cleanup rules:

(rule ebnf "1"
 (start #t)
 (first "@pass" "@terminals" LHS _eps)
 (follow _eof)
 (cleanup star)
 (alt _empty _ebnf_2))
(rule _ebnf_1 "1.1"
 (first "@pass" "@terminals" LHS)
 (follow "@pass" "@terminals" LHS _eof)
 (alt declaration rule))
(rule _ebnf_2 "1.2"
 (first "@pass" "@terminals" LHS)
 (follow _eof)
 (cleanup merge)
 (seq _ebnf_1 ebnf))
(rule _ebnf_3 "1.3" (first "@pass" "@terminals" LHS _eps) (follow _eof) (seq ebnf))

Parameters:

  • starts (Array<Symbol>)

    Set of symbols which are start rules

Returns:

See Also:


172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
# File 'lib/ebnf/ll1.rb', line 172

def first_follow(*starts)
  # Add _eof to follow all start rules
  @starts = starts
  if @start = starts.first
    starts.each do |start|
      start_rule = find_rule(start)
      raise "No rule found for start symbol #{start}" unless start_rule
      start_rule.add_follow([:_eof])
      start_rule.start = true
    end
  end

  # Comprehnsion rule, create shorter versions of all non-terminal sequences. This is necessary as the FF rules reference w', which is a comprehension.
  comprehensions = []
  ittr = 0
  depth do
    begin
      comprehensions = []
      ast.select {|r| r.rule? && r.seq? && r.comp.nil? && r.expr.length > 2}.each do |rule|
        new_expr = rule.expr[2..-1].unshift(:seq)
        if new_rule = ast.detect {|r| r.expr == new_expr}
          # Link to existing comprehension used for another rules
          debug("FF.c") {"(#{ittr}) link comprehension rule for #{rule.sym} => #{new_rule.sym}[#{new_expr.inspect}]"}
        else
          new_rule = rule.build(new_expr)
          debug("FF.c") {"(#{ittr}) add comprehension rule for #{rule.sym} => #{new_rule.sym}[#{new_expr.inspect}]"}
          comprehensions << new_rule
        end
        rule.comp = new_rule
      end

      @ast += comprehensions
      progress("FF.c") {"(#{ittr}) comprehensions #{comprehensions.length}"}
      ittr += 1
    end while !comprehensions.empty?

    ittr = 0
    begin
      firsts, follows = 0, 0
      # add Fi(wi) to Fi(Ai) for every rule Ai → wi
      #
      # * For sequences, this is the first rule in the sequence.
      # * For alts, this is every rule in the sequence
      # * Other rules don't matter, as they don't appear in strict BNF
      each(:rule) do |ai|
        # Fi(a w' ) = { a } for every terminal a
        ai.terminals(ast).each do |t|
          debug("Fi.2.1") {"(#{ittr}) add terminal #{t} to #{ai.sym}"}
          firsts += ai.add_first([t])
        end

        ai.non_terminals(ast).select(&:first).each do |a|
          if !a.first_includes_eps?
            # Fi(A w' ) = Fi(A) for every nonterminal A with ε not in Fi(A)
            debug("Fi.2.2") {"(#{ittr}) add first from #{a.sym} to #{ai.sym}: #{a.first.inspect}"}
            firsts += ai.add_first(a.first)
          else
            # Fi(A w' ) = Fi(A) \ { ε } ∪ Fi(w' ) for every nonterminal A with ε in Fi(A)
            if ai.seq?
              # w' is either comprehnsion of ai, or empty, if there is no comprehension
              comp = ai.comp || find_rule(:_empty)

              fi = a.first - [:_eps] + (comp.first || [])
              debug("Fi.2.3a") {"(#{ittr}) add first #{fi.inspect} from #{a.sym} and #{comp.sym} to #{ai.sym}"}
              firsts += ai.add_first(fi)
            else
              # ai is an alt, so there are no comprehensions of non-terminals, add Fi(A) including ε
              debug("Fi.2.3b") {"(#{ittr}) add first #{a.first} from #{a.sym} to #{ai.sym}"}
              firsts += ai.add_first(a.first)
            end
          end
        end
      end

      # # Fi(ε) = { ε }
      # Add _eps as a first of _empty
      find_rule(:_empty).add_first([:_eps])

      # Add follows
      # if there is a rule of the form Aj → wAiw' , then
      # First do this for the case when Ai is the first rule
      each(:rule) do |aj|
        comp = aj.comp || find_rule(:_empty)
        aj.non_terminals(ast).reject {|r| r.sym == :_empty}.each do |ai|
          # if the terminal a is in Fi(w' ), then add a to Fo(Ai)
          # Basically, this says that the firsts of a comprehension of a rule are the follows of the first non-terminal in the rule.
          if comp.first
            debug("Fo.2.1") {"(#{ittr}) add follow #{comp.first.inspect} from #{comp.sym} to #{ai.sym}"}
            follows += ai.add_follow(comp.first)
          end

          # If there is no comprehension of this rule (meaning, it is a sequence of one non-terminal), then the follows of the non-terminal include the follows of the rule. This handles rules with multiple sequences because it will have a comprehension that includes the last element in the sequence
          if !aj.comp && aj.follow
            debug("Fo.2.1a") {"(#{ittr}) add follow #{aj.follow.inspect} from #{aj.sym} to #{ai.sym}"}
            follows += ai.add_follow(aj.follow)
          end

          # if ε is in Fi(w' ), then add Fo(Aj) to Fo(Ai)
          if comp.first_includes_eps? && aj.follow
            debug("Fo.2.2") {"(#{ittr}) add follow #{aj.follow.inspect} from #{aj.sym} to #{ai.sym}"}
            follows += ai.add_follow(aj.follow)
          end
        end

        # Since the rules are of the form wAiw', and we've handled the case which is just Aiw', this leaves those cases that have rules prior to Ai. This basically says that the follows of a rule are added to the follows of the comprehension of the rule
        if aj.comp && aj.follow
          debug("Fo.2.3") {"(#{ittr}) add follow #{aj.follow.inspect} from #{aj.sym} to #{aj.comp.sym}"}
          follows += aj.comp.add_follow(aj.follow)
        end
      end

      progress("first_follow") {"(#{ittr}) firsts #{firsts}, follows #{follows}"}
      ittr += 1
    end while (firsts + follows) > 0

    debug("Fi.2-post: non-terminals without first") do
      ast.reject(&:terminal?).reject(&:first).map(&:sym)
    end if ast.reject(&:terminal?).any? {|r| r.first.nil?}
  end
end

#outputTable(io, name, table, indent = 0) ⇒ Object

Generate an output table in Ruby format

Parameters:


361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
# File 'lib/ebnf/ll1.rb', line 361

def outputTable(io, name, table, indent = 0)
  ind0 = '  ' * indent
  ind1 = ind0 + '  '
  ind2 = ind1 + '  '

  if table.is_a?(Hash)
    io.puts "#{ind0}#{name} = {"
    table.keys.sort_by{|t| t.to_s.sub(/^_/, '')}.each do |prod|
      case table[prod]
      when Symbol, String
        io.puts "#{ind1}#{prod.inspect} => #{table[prod].inspect},"
      when Array
        list = table[prod].map(&:inspect).join(",\n#{ind2}")
        io.puts "#{ind1}#{prod.inspect} => [\n#{ind2}#{list}],"
      when Hash
        io.puts "#{ind1}#{prod.inspect} => {"
        table[prod].keys.sort_by{|t| t.to_s.sub(/^_/, '')}.each do |term|
          list = table[prod][term].map(&:inspect).join(", ")
          io.puts "#{ind2}#{term.inspect} => [#{list}],"
        end
        io.puts "#{ind1}},"
      else
        "Unknown table entry type: #{table[prod].class}"
      end
    end
    io.puts "#{ind0}}.freeze\n"
  elsif table
    io.puts "#{ind0}#{name} = [\n#{ind1}" +
      table.sort_by{|t| t.to_s.sub(/^_/, '')}.map(&:inspect).join(",\n#{ind1}") +
      "\n#{ind0}].freeze\n"
  end
end

#to_ruby_ll1(output, **options) ⇒ Object

Output Ruby parser files for LL(1) parsing

Parameters:

  • output (IO, StringIO)

398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
# File 'lib/ebnf/ll1.rb', line 398

def to_ruby_ll1(output, **options)
  self.outputTable(output, 'BRANCH', self.branch, 1)
  self.outputTable(output, 'TERMINALS', self.terminals, 1)
  self.outputTable(output, 'FIRST', self.first, 1)
  self.outputTable(output, 'FOLLOW', self.follow, 1)
  self.outputTable(output, 'CLEANUP', self.cleanup, 1)
  self.outputTable(output, 'PASS', [self.pass], 1) if self.pass
end