Class: File

Inherits:
IO show all
Defined in:
file.c

Overview

A File is an abstraction of any file object accessible by the program and is closely associated with class IO File includes the methods of module FileTest as class methods, allowing you to write (for example) File.exist?("foo").

In the description of File methods, permission bits are a platform-specific set of bits that indicate permissions of a file. On Unix-based systems, permissions are viewed as a set of three octets, for the owner, the group, and the rest of the world. For each of these entities, permissions may be set to read, write, or execute the file:

The permission bits 0644 (in octal) would thus be interpreted as read/write for owner, and read-only for group and other. Higher-order bits may also be used to indicate the type of file (plain, directory, pipe, socket, and so on) and various other special features. If the permissions are for a directory, the meaning of the execute bit changes; when set the directory can be searched.

On non-Posix operating systems, there may be only the ability to make a file read-only or read-write. In this case, the remaining permission bits will be synthesized to resemble typical values. For instance, on Windows NT the default permission bits are 0644, which means read/write for owner, read-only for all others. The only change that can be made is to make the file read-only, which is reported as 0444.

Various constants for the methods in File can be found in File::Constants.

Defined Under Namespace

Modules: Constants Classes: Stat

Constant Summary collapse

Separator =

separates directory parts in path

separator
SEPARATOR =
separator
ALT_SEPARATOR =

platform specific alternative separator

Qnil
PATH_SEPARATOR =

path list separator

rb_obj_freeze(rb_str_new2(PATH_SEP))

Constants inherited from IO

IO::EWOULDBLOCKWaitReadable, IO::EWOULDBLOCKWaitWritable, IO::SEEK_CUR, IO::SEEK_DATA, IO::SEEK_END, IO::SEEK_HOLE, IO::SEEK_SET

Class Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Methods inherited from IO

#<<, #advise, #autoclose=, #autoclose?, #binmode, #binmode?, binread, binwrite, #bytes, #chars, #close, #close_on_exec=, #close_on_exec?, #close_read, #close_write, #closed?, #codepoints, copy_stream, #each, #each_byte, #each_char, #each_codepoint, #each_line, #eof, #eof?, #external_encoding, #fcntl, #fdatasync, #fileno, #flush, for_fd, foreach, #fsync, #getbyte, #getc, #gets, #initialize_copy, #inspect, #internal_encoding, #ioctl, #isatty, #lineno, #lineno=, #lines, new, #pid, pipe, popen, #pos, #pos=, #print, #printf, #putc, #puts, read, #read, #read_nonblock, #readbyte, #readchar, #readline, #readlines, readlines, #readpartial, #reopen, #rewind, #seek, select, #set_encoding, #sync, #sync=, sysopen, #sysread, #sysseek, #syswrite, #tell, #to_io, try_convert, #tty?, #ungetbyte, #ungetc, #write, write, #write_nonblock

Methods included from Enumerable

#all?, #any?, #chunk, #collect, #collect_concat, #count, #cycle, #detect, #drop, #drop_while, #each_cons, #each_entry, #each_slice, #each_with_index, #each_with_object, #entries, #find, #find_all, #find_index, #first, #flat_map, #grep, #group_by, #include?, #inject, #lazy, #map, #max, #max_by, #member?, #min, #min_by, #minmax, #minmax_by, #none?, #one?, #partition, #reduce, #reject, #reverse_each, #select, #slice_before, #sort, #sort_by, #take, #take_while, #to_a, #to_h, #zip

Constructor Details

#new(filename, mode = "r"[, opt]) ⇒ File #new(filename[, mode [, perm]][, opt]) ⇒ File

Opens the file named by filename according to the given mode and returns a new File object.

See IO.new for a description of mode and opt.

If a file is being created, permission bits may be given in perm. These mode and permission bits are platform dependent; on Unix systems, see open(2) and chmod(2) man pages for details.

Examples

f = File.new("testfile", "r")
f = File.new("newfile",  "w+")
f = File.new("newfile", File::CREAT|File::TRUNC|File::RDWR, 0644)

Overloads:

  • #new(filename, mode = "r"[, opt]) ⇒ File
  • #new(filename[, mode [, perm]][, opt]) ⇒ File

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# File 'io.c', line 7457

static VALUE
rb_file_initialize(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
    if (RFILE(io)->fptr) {
	rb_raise(rb_eRuntimeError, "reinitializing File");
    }
    if (0 < argc && argc < 3) {
	VALUE fd = rb_check_convert_type(argv[0], T_FIXNUM, "Fixnum", "to_int");

	if (!NIL_P(fd)) {
	    argv[0] = fd;
	    return rb_io_initialize(argc, argv, io);
	}
    }
    rb_open_file(argc, argv, io);

    return io;
}

Class Method Details

.absolute_path(file_name[, dir_string]) ⇒ Object

Converts a pathname to an absolute pathname. Relative paths are referenced from the current working directory of the process unless dir_string is given, in which case it will be used as the starting point. If the given pathname starts with a “~'' it is NOT expanded, it is treated as a normal directory name.

File.absolute_path("~oracle/bin")       #=> "<relative_path>/~oracle/bin"

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# File 'file.c', line 3484

VALUE
rb_file_s_absolute_path(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE fname, dname;

    if (argc == 1) {
	return rb_file_absolute_path(argv[0], Qnil);
    }
    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &fname, &dname);

    return rb_file_absolute_path(fname, dname);
}

.atime(file_name) ⇒ Time

Returns the last access time for the named file as a Time object).

file_name can be an IO object.

File.atime("testfile")   #=> Wed Apr 09 08:51:48 CDT 2003

Returns:


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# File 'file.c', line 1948

static VALUE
rb_file_s_atime(VALUE klass, VALUE fname)
{
    struct stat st;

    if (rb_stat(fname, &st) < 0) {
	FilePathValue(fname);
	rb_sys_fail_path(fname);
    }
    return stat_atime(&st);
}

.basename(file_name[, suffix]) ⇒ Object

Returns the last component of the filename given in file_name, which can be formed using both File::SEPARATOR and File::ALT_SEPARATOR as the separator when File::ALT_SEPARATOR is not nil. If suffix is given and present at the end of file_name, it is removed.

File.basename("/home/gumby/work/ruby.rb")          #=> "ruby.rb"
File.basename("/home/gumby/work/ruby.rb", ".rb")   #=> "ruby"

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# File 'file.c', line 3839

static VALUE
rb_file_s_basename(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE fname, fext, basename;
    const char *name, *p;
    long f, n;
    rb_encoding *enc;

    if (rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &fname, &fext) == 2) {
	StringValue(fext);
	enc = check_path_encoding(fext);
    }
    FilePathStringValue(fname);
    if (NIL_P(fext) || !(enc = rb_enc_compatible(fname, fext))) {
	enc = rb_enc_get(fname);
	fext = Qnil;
    }
    if ((n = RSTRING_LEN(fname)) == 0 || !*(name = RSTRING_PTR(fname)))
	return rb_str_new_shared(fname);

    p = ruby_enc_find_basename(name, &f, &n, enc);
    if (n >= 0) {
	if (NIL_P(fext)) {
	    f = n;
	}
	else {
	    const char *fp;
	    fp = StringValueCStr(fext);
	    if (!(f = rmext(p, f, n, fp, RSTRING_LEN(fext), enc))) {
		f = n;
	    }
	    RB_GC_GUARD(fext);
	}
	if (f == RSTRING_LEN(fname)) return rb_str_new_shared(fname);
    }

    basename = rb_str_new(p, f);
    rb_enc_copy(basename, fname);
    OBJ_INFECT(basename, fname);
    return basename;
}

.chmod(mode_int, file_name, ...) ⇒ Integer

Changes permission bits on the named file(s) to the bit pattern represented by mode_int. Actual effects are operating system dependent (see the beginning of this section). On Unix systems, see chmod(2) for details. Returns the number of files processed.

File.chmod(0644, "testfile", "out")   #=> 2

Returns:


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# File 'file.c', line 2131

static VALUE
rb_file_s_chmod(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE vmode;
    VALUE rest;
    int mode;
    long n;

    rb_secure(2);
    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "1*", &vmode, &rest);
    mode = NUM2INT(vmode);

    n = apply2files(chmod_internal, rest, &mode);
    return LONG2FIX(n);
}

.chown(owner_int, group_int, file_name, ...) ⇒ Integer

Changes the owner and group of the named file(s) to the given numeric owner and group id's. Only a process with superuser privileges may change the owner of a file. The current owner of a file may change the file's group to any group to which the owner belongs. A nil or -1 owner or group id is ignored. Returns the number of files processed.

File.chown(nil, 100, "testfile")

Returns:


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# File 'file.c', line 2250

static VALUE
rb_file_s_chown(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE o, g, rest;
    struct chown_args arg;
    long n;

    rb_secure(2);
    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "2*", &o, &g, &rest);
    if (NIL_P(o)) {
	arg.owner = -1;
    }
    else {
	arg.owner = NUM2UIDT(o);
    }
    if (NIL_P(g)) {
	arg.group = -1;
    }
    else {
	arg.group = NUM2GIDT(g);
    }

    n = apply2files(chown_internal, rest, &arg);
    return LONG2FIX(n);
}

.ctime(file_name) ⇒ Time

Returns the change time for the named file (the time at which directory information about the file was changed, not the file itself).

file_name can be an IO object.

Note that on Windows (NTFS), returns creation time (birth time).

File.ctime("testfile")   #=> Wed Apr 09 08:53:13 CDT 2003

Returns:


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# File 'file.c', line 2047

static VALUE
rb_file_s_ctime(VALUE klass, VALUE fname)
{
    struct stat st;

    if (rb_stat(fname, &st) < 0) {
	FilePathValue(fname);
	rb_sys_fail_path(fname);
    }
    return stat_ctime(&st);
}

.delete(file_name, ...) ⇒ Integer .unlink(file_name, ...) ⇒ Integer

Deletes the named files, returning the number of names passed as arguments. Raises an exception on any error. See also Dir::rmdir.

Overloads:


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# File 'file.c', line 2652

static VALUE
rb_file_s_unlink(VALUE klass, VALUE args)
{
    long n;

    rb_secure(2);
    n = apply2files(unlink_internal, args, 0);
    return LONG2FIX(n);
}

.dirname(file_name) ⇒ Object

Returns all components of the filename given in file_name except the last one. The filename can be formed using both File::SEPARATOR and File::ALT_SEPARATOR as the separator when File::ALT_SEPARATOR is not nil.

File.dirname("/home/gumby/work/ruby.rb")   #=> "/home/gumby/work"

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# File 'file.c', line 3893

static VALUE
rb_file_s_dirname(VALUE klass, VALUE fname)
{
    return rb_file_dirname(fname);
}

.expand_path(file_name[, dir_string]) ⇒ Object

Converts a pathname to an absolute pathname. Relative paths are referenced from the current working directory of the process unless dir_string is given, in which case it will be used as the starting point. The given pathname may start with a “~'', which expands to the process owner's home directory (the environment variable HOME must be set correctly). “~user'' expands to the named user's home directory.

File.expand_path("~oracle/bin")           #=> "/home/oracle/bin"

A simple example of using dir_string is as follows.

File.expand_path("ruby", "/usr/bin")      #=> "/usr/bin/ruby"

A more complex example which also resolves parent directory is as follows. Suppose we are in bin/mygem and want the absolute path of lib/mygem.rb.

File.expand_path("../../lib/mygem.rb", __FILE__)
#=> ".../path/to/project/lib/mygem.rb"

So first it resolves the parent of __FILE__, that is bin/, then go to the parent, the root of the project and appends lib/mygem.rb.


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# File 'file.c', line 3451

VALUE
rb_file_s_expand_path(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE fname, dname;

    if (argc == 1) {
	return rb_file_expand_path(argv[0], Qnil);
    }
    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &fname, &dname);

    return rb_file_expand_path(fname, dname);
}

.extname(path) ⇒ String

Returns the extension (the portion of file name in path starting from the last period).

If path is a dotfile, or starts with a period, then the starting dot is not dealt with the start of the extension.

An empty string will also be returned when the period is the last character in path.

File.extname("test.rb")         #=> ".rb"
File.extname("a/b/d/test.rb")   #=> ".rb"
File.extname("foo.")	       #=> ""
File.extname("test")            #=> ""
File.extname(".profile")        #=> ""
File.extname(".profile.sh")     #=> ".sh"

Returns:


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# File 'file.c', line 4029

static VALUE
rb_file_s_extname(VALUE klass, VALUE fname)
{
    const char *name, *e;
    long len;
    VALUE extname;

    FilePathStringValue(fname);
    name = StringValueCStr(fname);
    len = RSTRING_LEN(fname);
    e = ruby_enc_find_extname(name, &len, rb_enc_get(fname));
    if (len <= 1)
	return rb_str_new(0, 0);
    extname = rb_str_subseq(fname, e - name, len); /* keep the dot, too! */
    OBJ_INFECT(extname, fname);
    return extname;
}

.fnmatch(pattern, path, [flags]) ⇒ Boolean .fnmatch?(pattern, path, [flags]) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if path matches against pattern. The pattern is not a regular expression; instead it follows rules similar to shell filename globbing. It may contain the following metacharacters:

*

Matches any file. Can be restricted by other values in the glob. Equivalent to / .* /x in regexp.

*

Matches all files regular files

c*

Matches all files beginning with c

*c

Matches all files ending with c

*c*

Matches all files that have c in them (including at the beginning or end).

To match hidden files (that start with a . set the File::FNM_DOTMATCH flag.

**

Matches directories recursively or files expansively.

?

Matches any one character. Equivalent to /.{1}/ in regexp.

[set]

Matches any one character in set. Behaves exactly like character sets in Regexp, including set negation ([^a-z]).

\

Escapes the next metacharacter.

{a,b}

Matches pattern a and pattern b if File::FNM_EXTGLOB flag is enabled. Behaves like a Regexp union ((?:a|b)).

flags is a bitwise OR of the FNM_XXX constants. The same glob pattern and flags are used by Dir::glob.

Examples:

File.fnmatch('cat',       'cat')        #=> true  # match entire string
File.fnmatch('cat',       'category')   #=> false # only match partial string

File.fnmatch('c{at,ub}s', 'cats')                    #=> false # { } isn't supported by default
File.fnmatch('c{at,ub}s', 'cats', File::FNM_EXTGLOB) #=> true  # { } is supported on FNM_EXTGLOB

File.fnmatch('c?t',     'cat')          #=> true  # '?' match only 1 character
File.fnmatch('c??t',    'cat')          #=> false # ditto
File.fnmatch('c*',      'cats')         #=> true  # '*' match 0 or more characters
File.fnmatch('c*t',     'c/a/b/t')      #=> true  # ditto
File.fnmatch('ca[a-z]', 'cat')          #=> true  # inclusive bracket expression
File.fnmatch('ca[^t]',  'cat')          #=> false # exclusive bracket expression ('^' or '!')

File.fnmatch('cat', 'CAT')                     #=> false # case sensitive
File.fnmatch('cat', 'CAT', File::FNM_CASEFOLD) #=> true  # case insensitive

File.fnmatch('?',   '/', File::FNM_PATHNAME)  #=> false # wildcard doesn't match '/' on FNM_PATHNAME
File.fnmatch('*',   '/', File::FNM_PATHNAME)  #=> false # ditto
File.fnmatch('[/]', '/', File::FNM_PATHNAME)  #=> false # ditto

File.fnmatch('\?',   '?')                       #=> true  # escaped wildcard becomes ordinary
File.fnmatch('\a',   'a')                       #=> true  # escaped ordinary remains ordinary
File.fnmatch('\a',   '\a', File::FNM_NOESCAPE)  #=> true  # FNM_NOESCAPE makes '\' ordinary
File.fnmatch('[\?]', '?')                       #=> true  # can escape inside bracket expression

File.fnmatch('*',   '.profile')                      #=> false # wildcard doesn't match leading
File.fnmatch('*',   '.profile', File::FNM_DOTMATCH)  #=> true  # period by default.
File.fnmatch('.*',  '.profile')                      #=> true

rbfiles = '**' '/' '*.rb' # you don't have to do like this. just write in single string.
File.fnmatch(rbfiles, 'main.rb')                    #=> false
File.fnmatch(rbfiles, './main.rb')                  #=> false
File.fnmatch(rbfiles, 'lib/song.rb')                #=> true
File.fnmatch('**.rb', 'main.rb')                    #=> true
File.fnmatch('**.rb', './main.rb')                  #=> false
File.fnmatch('**.rb', 'lib/song.rb')                #=> true
File.fnmatch('*',           'dave/.profile')                      #=> true

pattern = '*' '/' '*'
File.fnmatch(pattern, 'dave/.profile', File::FNM_PATHNAME)  #=> false
File.fnmatch(pattern, 'dave/.profile', File::FNM_PATHNAME | File::FNM_DOTMATCH) #=> true

pattern = '**' '/' 'foo'
File.fnmatch(pattern, 'a/b/c/foo', File::FNM_PATHNAME)     #=> true
File.fnmatch(pattern, '/a/b/c/foo', File::FNM_PATHNAME)    #=> true
File.fnmatch(pattern, 'c:/a/b/c/foo', File::FNM_PATHNAME)  #=> true
File.fnmatch(pattern, 'a/.b/c/foo', File::FNM_PATHNAME)    #=> false
File.fnmatch(pattern, 'a/.b/c/foo', File::FNM_PATHNAME | File::FNM_DOTMATCH) #=> true

Overloads:

  • .fnmatch(pattern, path, [flags]) ⇒ Boolean

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)
  • .fnmatch?(pattern, path, [flags]) ⇒ Boolean

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)

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# File 'dir.c', line 2092

static VALUE
file_s_fnmatch(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE pattern, path;
    VALUE rflags;
    int flags;

    if (rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "21", &pattern, &path, &rflags) == 3)
	flags = NUM2INT(rflags);
    else
	flags = 0;

    StringValue(pattern);
    FilePathStringValue(path);

    if (flags & FNM_EXTGLOB) {
	struct brace_args args;

	args.value = path;
	args.flags = flags;
	if (ruby_brace_expand(RSTRING_PTR(pattern), flags, fnmatch_brace,
			      (VALUE)&args, rb_enc_get(pattern)) > 0)
	    return Qtrue;
    }
    else {
	rb_encoding *enc = rb_enc_compatible(pattern, path);
	if (!enc) return Qfalse;
	if (fnmatch(RSTRING_PTR(pattern), enc, RSTRING_PTR(path), flags) == 0)
	    return Qtrue;
    }
    RB_GC_GUARD(pattern);

    return Qfalse;
}

.fnmatch(pattern, path, [flags]) ⇒ Boolean .fnmatch?(pattern, path, [flags]) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if path matches against pattern. The pattern is not a regular expression; instead it follows rules similar to shell filename globbing. It may contain the following metacharacters:

*

Matches any file. Can be restricted by other values in the glob. Equivalent to / .* /x in regexp.

*

Matches all files regular files

c*

Matches all files beginning with c

*c

Matches all files ending with c

*c*

Matches all files that have c in them (including at the beginning or end).

To match hidden files (that start with a . set the File::FNM_DOTMATCH flag.

**

Matches directories recursively or files expansively.

?

Matches any one character. Equivalent to /.{1}/ in regexp.

[set]

Matches any one character in set. Behaves exactly like character sets in Regexp, including set negation ([^a-z]).

\

Escapes the next metacharacter.

{a,b}

Matches pattern a and pattern b if File::FNM_EXTGLOB flag is enabled. Behaves like a Regexp union ((?:a|b)).

flags is a bitwise OR of the FNM_XXX constants. The same glob pattern and flags are used by Dir::glob.

Examples:

File.fnmatch('cat',       'cat')        #=> true  # match entire string
File.fnmatch('cat',       'category')   #=> false # only match partial string

File.fnmatch('c{at,ub}s', 'cats')                    #=> false # { } isn't supported by default
File.fnmatch('c{at,ub}s', 'cats', File::FNM_EXTGLOB) #=> true  # { } is supported on FNM_EXTGLOB

File.fnmatch('c?t',     'cat')          #=> true  # '?' match only 1 character
File.fnmatch('c??t',    'cat')          #=> false # ditto
File.fnmatch('c*',      'cats')         #=> true  # '*' match 0 or more characters
File.fnmatch('c*t',     'c/a/b/t')      #=> true  # ditto
File.fnmatch('ca[a-z]', 'cat')          #=> true  # inclusive bracket expression
File.fnmatch('ca[^t]',  'cat')          #=> false # exclusive bracket expression ('^' or '!')

File.fnmatch('cat', 'CAT')                     #=> false # case sensitive
File.fnmatch('cat', 'CAT', File::FNM_CASEFOLD) #=> true  # case insensitive

File.fnmatch('?',   '/', File::FNM_PATHNAME)  #=> false # wildcard doesn't match '/' on FNM_PATHNAME
File.fnmatch('*',   '/', File::FNM_PATHNAME)  #=> false # ditto
File.fnmatch('[/]', '/', File::FNM_PATHNAME)  #=> false # ditto

File.fnmatch('\?',   '?')                       #=> true  # escaped wildcard becomes ordinary
File.fnmatch('\a',   'a')                       #=> true  # escaped ordinary remains ordinary
File.fnmatch('\a',   '\a', File::FNM_NOESCAPE)  #=> true  # FNM_NOESCAPE makes '\' ordinary
File.fnmatch('[\?]', '?')                       #=> true  # can escape inside bracket expression

File.fnmatch('*',   '.profile')                      #=> false # wildcard doesn't match leading
File.fnmatch('*',   '.profile', File::FNM_DOTMATCH)  #=> true  # period by default.
File.fnmatch('.*',  '.profile')                      #=> true

rbfiles = '**' '/' '*.rb' # you don't have to do like this. just write in single string.
File.fnmatch(rbfiles, 'main.rb')                    #=> false
File.fnmatch(rbfiles, './main.rb')                  #=> false
File.fnmatch(rbfiles, 'lib/song.rb')                #=> true
File.fnmatch('**.rb', 'main.rb')                    #=> true
File.fnmatch('**.rb', './main.rb')                  #=> false
File.fnmatch('**.rb', 'lib/song.rb')                #=> true
File.fnmatch('*',           'dave/.profile')                      #=> true

pattern = '*' '/' '*'
File.fnmatch(pattern, 'dave/.profile', File::FNM_PATHNAME)  #=> false
File.fnmatch(pattern, 'dave/.profile', File::FNM_PATHNAME | File::FNM_DOTMATCH) #=> true

pattern = '**' '/' 'foo'
File.fnmatch(pattern, 'a/b/c/foo', File::FNM_PATHNAME)     #=> true
File.fnmatch(pattern, '/a/b/c/foo', File::FNM_PATHNAME)    #=> true
File.fnmatch(pattern, 'c:/a/b/c/foo', File::FNM_PATHNAME)  #=> true
File.fnmatch(pattern, 'a/.b/c/foo', File::FNM_PATHNAME)    #=> false
File.fnmatch(pattern, 'a/.b/c/foo', File::FNM_PATHNAME | File::FNM_DOTMATCH) #=> true

Overloads:

  • .fnmatch(pattern, path, [flags]) ⇒ Boolean

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)
  • .fnmatch?(pattern, path, [flags]) ⇒ Boolean

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'dir.c', line 2092

static VALUE
file_s_fnmatch(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE pattern, path;
    VALUE rflags;
    int flags;

    if (rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "21", &pattern, &path, &rflags) == 3)
	flags = NUM2INT(rflags);
    else
	flags = 0;

    StringValue(pattern);
    FilePathStringValue(path);

    if (flags & FNM_EXTGLOB) {
	struct brace_args args;

	args.value = path;
	args.flags = flags;
	if (ruby_brace_expand(RSTRING_PTR(pattern), flags, fnmatch_brace,
			      (VALUE)&args, rb_enc_get(pattern)) > 0)
	    return Qtrue;
    }
    else {
	rb_encoding *enc = rb_enc_compatible(pattern, path);
	if (!enc) return Qfalse;
	if (fnmatch(RSTRING_PTR(pattern), enc, RSTRING_PTR(path), flags) == 0)
	    return Qtrue;
    }
    RB_GC_GUARD(pattern);

    return Qfalse;
}

.ftype(file_name) ⇒ String

Identifies the type of the named file; the return string is one of “file'', “directory'', “characterSpecial'', “blockSpecial'', “fifo'', “link'', “socket'', or “unknown''.

File.ftype("testfile")            #=> "file"
File.ftype("/dev/tty")            #=> "characterSpecial"
File.ftype("/tmp/.X11-unix/X0")   #=> "socket"

Returns:


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# File 'file.c', line 1921

static VALUE
rb_file_s_ftype(VALUE klass, VALUE fname)
{
    struct stat st;

    rb_secure(2);
    FilePathValue(fname);
    fname = rb_str_encode_ospath(fname);
    if (lstat(StringValueCStr(fname), &st) == -1) {
	rb_sys_fail_path(fname);
    }

    return rb_file_ftype(&st);
}

.join(string, ...) ⇒ Object

Returns a new string formed by joining the strings using File::SEPARATOR.

File.join("usr", "mail", "gumby")   #=> "usr/mail/gumby"

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# File 'file.c', line 4181

static VALUE
rb_file_s_join(VALUE klass, VALUE args)
{
    return rb_file_join(args, separator);
}

.lchmod(mode_int, file_name, ...) ⇒ Integer

Equivalent to File::chmod, but does not follow symbolic links (so it will change the permissions associated with the link, not the file referenced by the link). Often not available.

Returns:


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# File 'file.c', line 2204

static VALUE
rb_file_s_lchmod(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE vmode;
    VALUE rest;
    long mode, n;

    rb_secure(2);
    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "1*", &vmode, &rest);
    mode = NUM2INT(vmode);

    n = apply2files(lchmod_internal, rest, (void *)(long)mode);
    return LONG2FIX(n);
}

.lchown(owner_int, group_int, file_name, ..) ⇒ Integer

Equivalent to File::chown, but does not follow symbolic links (so it will change the owner associated with the link, not the file referenced by the link). Often not available. Returns number of files in the argument list.

Returns:


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# File 'file.c', line 2337

static VALUE
rb_file_s_lchown(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE o, g, rest;
    struct chown_args arg;
    long n;

    rb_secure(2);
    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "2*", &o, &g, &rest);
    if (NIL_P(o)) {
	arg.owner = -1;
    }
    else {
	arg.owner = NUM2UIDT(o);
    }
    if (NIL_P(g)) {
	arg.group = -1;
    }
    else {
	arg.group = NUM2GIDT(g);
    }

    n = apply2files(lchown_internal, rest, &arg);
    return LONG2FIX(n);
}

Creates a new name for an existing file using a hard link. Will not overwrite new_name if it already exists (raising a subclass of SystemCallError). Not available on all platforms.

File.link("testfile", ".testfile")   #=> 0
IO.readlines(".testfile")[0]         #=> "This is line one\n"

Returns:

  • (0)

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# File 'file.c', line 2534

static VALUE
rb_file_s_link(VALUE klass, VALUE from, VALUE to)
{
    rb_secure(2);
    FilePathValue(from);
    FilePathValue(to);
    from = rb_str_encode_ospath(from);
    to = rb_str_encode_ospath(to);

    if (link(StringValueCStr(from), StringValueCStr(to)) < 0) {
	sys_fail2(from, to);
    }
    return INT2FIX(0);
}

.lstat(file_name) ⇒ Object

Same as File::stat, but does not follow the last symbolic link. Instead, reports on the link itself.

File.symlink("testfile", "link2test")   #=> 0
File.stat("testfile").size              #=> 66
File.lstat("link2test").size            #=> 8
File.stat("link2test").size             #=> 66

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# File 'file.c', line 1036

static VALUE
rb_file_s_lstat(VALUE klass, VALUE fname)
{
#ifdef HAVE_LSTAT
    struct stat st;

    rb_secure(2);
    FilePathValue(fname);
    fname = rb_str_encode_ospath(fname);
    if (lstat(StringValueCStr(fname), &st) == -1) {
	rb_sys_fail_path(fname);
    }
    return rb_stat_new(&st);
#else
    return rb_file_s_stat(klass, fname);
#endif
}

.mtime(file_name) ⇒ Time

Returns the modification time for the named file as a Time object.

file_name can be an IO object.

File.mtime("testfile")   #=> Tue Apr 08 12:58:04 CDT 2003

Returns:


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# File 'file.c', line 1996

static VALUE
rb_file_s_mtime(VALUE klass, VALUE fname)
{
    struct stat st;

    if (rb_stat(fname, &st) < 0) {
	FilePathValue(fname);
	rb_sys_fail_path(fname);
    }
    return stat_mtime(&st);
}

.openObject

call-seq:

IO.open(fd, mode="r" [, opt])                -> io
IO.open(fd, mode="r" [, opt]) { |io| block } -> obj

With no associated block, IO.open is a synonym for IO.new. If the optional code block is given, it will be passed io as an argument, and the IO object will automatically be closed when the block terminates. In this instance, IO.open returns the value of the block.

See IO.new for a description of the fd, mode and opt parameters.


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# File 'io.c', line 6257

static VALUE
rb_io_s_open(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    VALUE io = rb_class_new_instance(argc, argv, klass);

    if (rb_block_given_p()) {
	return rb_ensure(rb_yield, io, io_close, io);
    }

    return io;
}

.path(path) ⇒ String

Returns the string representation of the path

File.path("/dev/null")          #=> "/dev/null"
File.path(Pathname.new("/tmp")) #=> "/tmp"

Returns:


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# File 'file.c', line 4058

static VALUE
rb_file_s_path(VALUE klass, VALUE fname)
{
    return rb_get_path(fname);
}

Returns the name of the file referenced by the given link. Not available on all platforms.

File.symlink("testfile", "link2test")   #=> 0
File.readlink("link2test")              #=> "testfile"

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# File 'file.c', line 2597

static VALUE
rb_file_s_readlink(VALUE klass, VALUE path)
{
    return rb_readlink(path);
}

.realdirpath(pathname[, dir_string]) ⇒ Object

Returns the real (absolute) pathname of pathname in the actual filesystem.

The real pathname doesn't contain symlinks or useless dots.

If _dir_string_ is given, it is used as a base directory
for interpreting relative pathname instead of the current directory.

The last component of the real pathname can be nonexistent.

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# File 'file.c', line 3717

static VALUE
rb_file_s_realdirpath(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    VALUE path, basedir;
    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &path, &basedir);
    return rb_realpath_internal(basedir, path, 0);
}

.realpath(pathname[, dir_string]) ⇒ Object

Returns the real (absolute) pathname of pathname in the actual

filesystem not containing symlinks or useless dots.

If _dir_string_ is given, it is used as a base directory
for interpreting relative pathname instead of the current directory.

All components of the pathname must exist when this method is
called.

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# File 'file.c', line 3697

static VALUE
rb_file_s_realpath(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    VALUE path, basedir;
    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &path, &basedir);
    return rb_realpath_internal(basedir, path, 1);
}

.rename(old_name, new_name) ⇒ 0

Renames the given file to the new name. Raises a SystemCallError if the file cannot be renamed.

File.rename("afile", "afile.bak")   #=> 0

Returns:

  • (0)

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# File 'file.c', line 2672

static VALUE
rb_file_s_rename(VALUE klass, VALUE from, VALUE to)
{
    const char *src, *dst;
    VALUE f, t;

    rb_secure(2);
    FilePathValue(from);
    FilePathValue(to);
    f = rb_str_encode_ospath(from);
    t = rb_str_encode_ospath(to);
    src = StringValueCStr(f);
    dst = StringValueCStr(t);
#if defined __CYGWIN__
    errno = 0;
#endif
    if (rename(src, dst) < 0) {
#if defined DOSISH
	switch (errno) {
	  case EEXIST:
#if defined (__EMX__)
	  case EACCES:
#endif
	    if (chmod(dst, 0666) == 0 &&
		unlink(dst) == 0 &&
		rename(src, dst) == 0)
		return INT2FIX(0);
	}
#endif
	sys_fail2(from, to);
    }

    return INT2FIX(0);
}

.split(file_name) ⇒ Array

Splits the given string into a directory and a file component and returns them in a two-element array. See also File::dirname and File::basename.

File.split("/home/gumby/.profile")   #=> ["/home/gumby", ".profile"]

Returns:


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# File 'file.c', line 4075

static VALUE
rb_file_s_split(VALUE klass, VALUE path)
{
    FilePathStringValue(path);		/* get rid of converting twice */
    return rb_assoc_new(rb_file_s_dirname(Qnil, path), rb_file_s_basename(1,&path));
}

.stat(file_name) ⇒ Object

Returns a File::Stat object for the named file (see File::Stat).

File.stat("testfile").mtime   #=> Tue Apr 08 12:58:04 CDT 2003

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# File 'file.c', line 982

static VALUE
rb_file_s_stat(VALUE klass, VALUE fname)
{
    struct stat st;

    FilePathValue(fname);
    if (rb_stat(fname, &st) < 0) {
	rb_sys_fail_path(fname);
    }
    return rb_stat_new(&st);
}

Creates a symbolic link called new_name for the existing file old_name. Raises a NotImplemented exception on platforms that do not support symbolic links.

File.symlink("testfile", "link2test")   #=> 0

Returns:

  • (0)

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# File 'file.c', line 2565

static VALUE
rb_file_s_symlink(VALUE klass, VALUE from, VALUE to)
{
    rb_secure(2);
    FilePathValue(from);
    FilePathValue(to);
    from = rb_str_encode_ospath(from);
    to = rb_str_encode_ospath(to);

    if (symlink(StringValueCStr(from), StringValueCStr(to)) < 0) {
	sys_fail2(from, to);
    }
    return INT2FIX(0);
}

.truncate(file_name, integer) ⇒ 0

Truncates the file file_name to be at most integer bytes long. Not available on all platforms.

f = File.new("out", "w")
f.write("1234567890")     #=> 10
f.close                   #=> nil
File.truncate("out", 5)   #=> 0
File.size("out")          #=> 5

Returns:

  • (0)

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# File 'file.c', line 4203

static VALUE
rb_file_s_truncate(VALUE klass, VALUE path, VALUE len)
{
#ifdef HAVE_TRUNCATE
#define NUM2POS(n) NUM2OFFT(n)
    off_t pos;
#else
#define NUM2POS(n) NUM2LONG(n)
    long pos;
#endif

    rb_secure(2);
    pos = NUM2POS(len);
    FilePathValue(path);
    path = rb_str_encode_ospath(path);
#ifdef HAVE_TRUNCATE
    if (truncate(StringValueCStr(path), pos) < 0)
	rb_sys_fail_path(path);
#else /* defined(HAVE_CHSIZE) */
    {
	int tmpfd;

	if ((tmpfd = rb_cloexec_open(StringValueCStr(path), 0, 0)) < 0) {
	    rb_sys_fail_path(path);
	}
        rb_update_max_fd(tmpfd);
	if (chsize(tmpfd, pos) < 0) {
	    close(tmpfd);
	    rb_sys_fail_path(path);
	}
	close(tmpfd);
    }
#endif
    return INT2FIX(0);
#undef NUM2POS
}

.umaskInteger .umask(integer) ⇒ Integer

Returns the current umask value for this process. If the optional argument is given, set the umask to that value and return the previous value. Umask values are subtracted from the default permissions, so a umask of 0222 would make a file read-only for everyone.

File.umask(0006)   #=> 18
File.umask         #=> 6

Overloads:


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# File 'file.c', line 2722

static VALUE
rb_file_s_umask(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    int omask = 0;

    rb_secure(2);
    if (argc == 0) {
	omask = umask(0);
	umask(omask);
    }
    else if (argc == 1) {
	omask = umask(NUM2INT(argv[0]));
    }
    else {
	rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 1);
    }
    return INT2FIX(omask);
}

Deletes the named files, returning the number of names passed as arguments. Raises an exception on any error. See also Dir::rmdir.

Overloads:


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# File 'file.c', line 2652

static VALUE
rb_file_s_unlink(VALUE klass, VALUE args)
{
    long n;

    rb_secure(2);
    n = apply2files(unlink_internal, args, 0);
    return LONG2FIX(n);
}

.utime(atime, mtime, file_name, ...) ⇒ Integer

Sets the access and modification times of each named file to the first two arguments. Returns the number of file names in the argument list.

Returns:


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# File 'file.c', line 2480

static VALUE
rb_file_s_utime(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE rest;
    struct utime_args args;
    struct timespec tss[2], *tsp = NULL;
    long n;

    rb_secure(2);
    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "2*", &args.atime, &args.mtime, &rest);

    if (!NIL_P(args.atime) || !NIL_P(args.mtime)) {
	tsp = tss;
	tsp[0] = rb_time_timespec(args.atime);
	tsp[1] = rb_time_timespec(args.mtime);
    }
    args.tsp = tsp;

    n = apply2files(utime_internal, rest, &args);
    return LONG2FIX(n);
}

Instance Method Details

#atimeTime

Returns the last access time (a Time object)

for <i>file</i>, or epoch if <i>file</i> has not been accessed.

  File.new("testfile").atime   #=> Wed Dec 31 18:00:00 CST 1969

Returns:


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# File 'file.c', line 1971

static VALUE
rb_file_atime(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    struct stat st;

    GetOpenFile(obj, fptr);
    if (fstat(fptr->fd, &st) == -1) {
	rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
    }
    return stat_atime(&st);
}

#chmod(mode_int) ⇒ 0

Changes permission bits on file to the bit pattern represented by mode_int. Actual effects are platform dependent; on Unix systems, see chmod(2) for details. Follows symbolic links. Also see File#lchmod.

f = File.new("out", "w");
f.chmod(0644)   #=> 0

Returns:

  • (0)

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# File 'file.c', line 2160

static VALUE
rb_file_chmod(VALUE obj, VALUE vmode)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    int mode;
#ifndef HAVE_FCHMOD
    VALUE path;
#endif

    rb_secure(2);
    mode = NUM2INT(vmode);

    GetOpenFile(obj, fptr);
#ifdef HAVE_FCHMOD
    if (fchmod(fptr->fd, mode) == -1)
	rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
#else
    if (NIL_P(fptr->pathv)) return Qnil;
    path = rb_str_encode_ospath(fptr->pathv);
    if (chmod(RSTRING_PTR(path), mode) == -1)
	rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
#endif

    return INT2FIX(0);
}

#chown(owner_int, group_int) ⇒ 0

Changes the owner and group of file to the given numeric owner and group id's. Only a process with superuser privileges may change the owner of a file. The current owner of a file may change the file's group to any group to which the owner belongs. A nil or -1 owner or group id is ignored. Follows symbolic links. See also File#lchown.

File.new("testfile").chown(502, 1000)

Returns:

  • (0)

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# File 'file.c', line 2291

static VALUE
rb_file_chown(VALUE obj, VALUE owner, VALUE group)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    int o, g;
#ifndef HAVE_FCHOWN
    VALUE path;
#endif

    rb_secure(2);
    o = NIL_P(owner) ? -1 : NUM2INT(owner);
    g = NIL_P(group) ? -1 : NUM2INT(group);
    GetOpenFile(obj, fptr);
#ifndef HAVE_FCHOWN
    if (NIL_P(fptr->pathv)) return Qnil;
    path = rb_str_encode_ospath(fptr->pathv);
    if (chown(RSTRING_PTR(path), o, g) == -1)
	rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
#else
    if (fchown(fptr->fd, o, g) == -1)
	rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
#endif

    return INT2FIX(0);
}

#ctimeTime

Returns the change time for file (that is, the time directory information about the file was changed, not the file itself).

Note that on Windows (NTFS), returns creation time (birth time).

File.new("testfile").ctime   #=> Wed Apr 09 08:53:14 CDT 2003

Returns:


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# File 'file.c', line 2072

static VALUE
rb_file_ctime(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    struct stat st;

    GetOpenFile(obj, fptr);
    if (fstat(fptr->fd, &st) == -1) {
	rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
    }
    return stat_ctime(&st);
}

#flock(locking_constant) ⇒ 0, false

Locks or unlocks a file according to locking_constant (a logical or of the values in the table below). Returns false if File::LOCK_NB is specified and the operation would otherwise have blocked. Not available on all platforms.

Locking constants (in class File):

LOCK_EX   | Exclusive lock. Only one process may hold an
          | exclusive lock for a given file at a time.
----------+------------------------------------------------
LOCK_NB   | Don't block when locking. May be combined
          | with other lock options using logical or.
----------+------------------------------------------------
LOCK_SH   | Shared lock. Multiple processes may each hold a
          | shared lock for a given file at the same time.
----------+------------------------------------------------
LOCK_UN   | Unlock.

Example:

# update a counter using write lock
# don't use "w" because it truncates the file before lock.
File.open("counter", File::RDWR|File::CREAT, 0644) {|f|
  f.flock(File::LOCK_EX)
  value = f.read.to_i + 1
  f.rewind
  f.write("#{value}\n")
  f.flush
  f.truncate(f.pos)
}

# read the counter using read lock
File.open("counter", "r") {|f|
  f.flock(File::LOCK_SH)
  p f.read
}

Returns:

  • (0, false)

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# File 'file.c', line 4369

static VALUE
rb_file_flock(VALUE obj, VALUE operation)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    int op[2], op1;
    struct timeval time;

    rb_secure(2);
    op[1] = op1 = NUM2INT(operation);
    GetOpenFile(obj, fptr);
    op[0] = fptr->fd;

    if (fptr->mode & FMODE_WRITABLE) {
	rb_io_flush_raw(obj, 0);
    }
    while ((int)rb_thread_io_blocking_region(rb_thread_flock, op, fptr->fd) < 0) {
	switch (errno) {
	  case EAGAIN:
	  case EACCES:
#if defined(EWOULDBLOCK) && EWOULDBLOCK != EAGAIN
	  case EWOULDBLOCK:
#endif
	    if (op1 & LOCK_NB) return Qfalse;

	    time.tv_sec = 0;
	    time.tv_usec = 100 * 1000;	/* 0.1 sec */
	    rb_thread_wait_for(time);
	    rb_io_check_closed(fptr);
	    continue;

	  case EINTR:
#if defined(ERESTART)
	  case ERESTART:
#endif
	    break;

	  default:
	    rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
	}
    }
    return INT2FIX(0);
}

#lstatObject

Same as IO#stat, but does not follow the last symbolic link. Instead, reports on the link itself.

File.symlink("testfile", "link2test")   #=> 0
File.stat("testfile").size              #=> 66
f = File.new("link2test")
f.lstat.size                            #=> 8
f.stat.size                             #=> 66

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# File 'file.c', line 1068

static VALUE
rb_file_lstat(VALUE obj)
{
#ifdef HAVE_LSTAT
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    struct stat st;
    VALUE path;

    rb_secure(2);
    GetOpenFile(obj, fptr);
    if (NIL_P(fptr->pathv)) return Qnil;
    path = rb_str_encode_ospath(fptr->pathv);
    if (lstat(RSTRING_PTR(path), &st) == -1) {
	rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
    }
    return rb_stat_new(&st);
#else
    return rb_io_stat(obj);
#endif
}

#mtimeTime

Returns the modification time for file.

File.new("testfile").mtime   #=> Wed Apr 09 08:53:14 CDT 2003

Returns:


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# File 'file.c', line 2018

static VALUE
rb_file_mtime(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    struct stat st;

    GetOpenFile(obj, fptr);
    if (fstat(fptr->fd, &st) == -1) {
	rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
    }
    return stat_mtime(&st);
}

#pathObject #to_pathObject

Returns the pathname used to create file as a string. Does not normalize the name.

File.new("testfile").path               #=> "testfile"
File.new("/tmp/../tmp/xxx", "w").path   #=> "/tmp/../tmp/xxx"

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# File 'file.c', line 345

static VALUE
rb_file_path(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    fptr = RFILE(rb_io_taint_check(obj))->fptr;
    rb_io_check_initialized(fptr);
    if (NIL_P(fptr->pathv)) return Qnil;
    return rb_obj_taint(rb_str_dup(fptr->pathv));
}

#sizeInteger

Returns the size of file in bytes.

File.new("testfile").size   #=> 66

Returns:


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# File 'file.c', line 2095

static VALUE
rb_file_size(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    struct stat st;

    GetOpenFile(obj, fptr);
    if (fptr->mode & FMODE_WRITABLE) {
	rb_io_flush_raw(obj, 0);
    }
    if (fstat(fptr->fd, &st) == -1) {
	rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
    }
    return OFFT2NUM(st.st_size);
}

#pathObject #to_pathObject

Returns the pathname used to create file as a string. Does not normalize the name.

File.new("testfile").path               #=> "testfile"
File.new("/tmp/../tmp/xxx", "w").path   #=> "/tmp/../tmp/xxx"

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# File 'file.c', line 345

static VALUE
rb_file_path(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    fptr = RFILE(rb_io_taint_check(obj))->fptr;
    rb_io_check_initialized(fptr);
    if (NIL_P(fptr->pathv)) return Qnil;
    return rb_obj_taint(rb_str_dup(fptr->pathv));
}

#truncate(integer) ⇒ 0

Truncates file to at most integer bytes. The file must be opened for writing. Not available on all platforms.

f = File.new("out", "w")
f.syswrite("1234567890")   #=> 10
f.truncate(5)              #=> 0
f.close()                  #=> nil
File.size("out")           #=> 5

Returns:

  • (0)

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# File 'file.c', line 4258

static VALUE
rb_file_truncate(VALUE obj, VALUE len)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
#if defined(HAVE_FTRUNCATE)
#define NUM2POS(n) NUM2OFFT(n)
    off_t pos;
#else
#define NUM2POS(n) NUM2LONG(n)
    long pos;
#endif

    rb_secure(2);
    pos = NUM2POS(len);
    GetOpenFile(obj, fptr);
    if (!(fptr->mode & FMODE_WRITABLE)) {
	rb_raise(rb_eIOError, "not opened for writing");
    }
    rb_io_flush_raw(obj, 0);
#ifdef HAVE_FTRUNCATE
    if (ftruncate(fptr->fd, pos) < 0)
	rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
#else /* defined(HAVE_CHSIZE) */
    if (chsize(fptr->fd, pos) < 0)
	rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
#endif
    return INT2FIX(0);
#undef NUM2POS
}