Module: Open3

Defined in:
lib/open3.rb

Overview

Open3 grants you access to stdin, stdout, stderr and a thread to wait for the child process when running another program. You can specify various attributes, redirections, current directory, etc., of the program in the same way as for Process.spawn.

  • Open3.popen3 : pipes for stdin, stdout, stderr

  • Open3.popen2 : pipes for stdin, stdout

  • Open3.popen2e : pipes for stdin, merged stdout and stderr

  • Open3.capture3 : give a string for stdin; get strings for stdout, stderr

  • Open3.capture2 : give a string for stdin; get a string for stdout

  • Open3.capture2e : give a string for stdin; get a string for merged stdout and stderr

  • Open3.pipeline_rw : pipes for first stdin and last stdout of a pipeline

  • Open3.pipeline_r : pipe for last stdout of a pipeline

  • Open3.pipeline_w : pipe for first stdin of a pipeline

  • Open3.pipeline_start : run a pipeline without waiting

  • Open3.pipeline : run a pipeline and wait for its completion

Class Method Summary collapse

Class Method Details

.capture2(stdin_data: '', binmode: false, *cmd, **opts) ⇒ Object

Open3.capture2 captures the standard output of a command.

stdout_str, status = Open3.capture2([env,] cmd... [, opts])

The arguments env, cmd and opts are passed to Open3.popen3 except opts and opts. See Process.spawn.

If opts is specified, it is sent to the command's standard input.

If opts is true, internal pipes are set to binary mode.

Example:

# factor is a command for integer factorization.
o, s = Open3.capture2("factor", :stdin_data=>"42")
p o #=> "42: 2 3 7\n"

# generate x**2 graph in png using gnuplot.
gnuplot_commands = <<"End"
  set terminal png
  plot x**2, "-" with lines
  1 14
  2 1
  3 8
  4 5
  e
End
image, s = Open3.capture2("gnuplot", :stdin_data=>gnuplot_commands, :binmode=>true)

296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
# File 'lib/open3.rb', line 296

def capture2(*cmd, stdin_data: '', binmode: false, **opts)
  popen2(*cmd, opts) {|i, o, t|
    if binmode
      i.binmode
      o.binmode
    end
    out_reader = Thread.new { o.read }
    i.write stdin_data
    i.close
    [out_reader.value, t.value]
  }
end

.capture2e(stdin_data: '', binmode: false, *cmd, **opts) ⇒ Object

Open3.capture2e captures the standard output and the standard error of a command.

stdout_and_stderr_str, status = Open3.capture2e([env,] cmd... [, opts])

The arguments env, cmd and opts are passed to Open3.popen3 except opts and opts. See Process.spawn.

If opts is specified, it is sent to the command's standard input.

If opts is true, internal pipes are set to binary mode.

Example:

# capture make log
make_log, s = Open3.capture2e("make")

326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
# File 'lib/open3.rb', line 326

def capture2e(*cmd, stdin_data: '', binmode: false, **opts)
  popen2e(*cmd, opts) {|i, oe, t|
    if binmode
      i.binmode
      oe.binmode
    end
    outerr_reader = Thread.new { oe.read }
    i.write stdin_data
    i.close
    [outerr_reader.value, t.value]
  }
end

.capture3(stdin_data: '', binmode: false, *cmd, **opts) ⇒ Object

Open3.capture3 captures the standard output and the standard error of a command.

stdout_str, stderr_str, status = Open3.capture3([env,] cmd... [, opts])

The arguments env, cmd and opts are passed to Open3.popen3 except opts and opts. See Process.spawn.

If opts is specified, it is sent to the command's standard input.

If opts is true, internal pipes are set to binary mode.

Examples:

# dot is a command of graphviz.
graph = <<'End'
  digraph g {
    a -> b
  }
End
drawn_graph, dot_log = Open3.capture3("dot -v", :stdin_data=>graph)

o, e, s = Open3.capture3("echo abc; sort >&2", :stdin_data=>"foo\nbar\nbaz\n")
p o #=> "abc\n"
p e #=> "bar\nbaz\nfoo\n"
p s #=> #<Process::Status: pid 32682 exit 0>

# generate a thumbnail image using the convert command of ImageMagick.
# However, if the image is really stored in a file,
# system("convert", "-thumbnail", "80", "png:#{filename}", "png:-") is better
# because of reduced memory consumption.
# But if the image is stored in a DB or generated by the gnuplot Open3.capture2 example,
# Open3.capture3 should be considered.
#
image = File.read("/usr/share/openclipart/png/animals/mammals/sheep-md-v0.1.png", :binmode=>true)
thumbnail, err, s = Open3.capture3("convert -thumbnail 80 png:- png:-", :stdin_data=>image, :binmode=>true)
if s.success?
  STDOUT.binmode; print thumbnail
end

251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
# File 'lib/open3.rb', line 251

def capture3(*cmd, stdin_data: '', binmode: false, **opts)
  popen3(*cmd, opts) {|i, o, e, t|
    if binmode
      i.binmode
      o.binmode
      e.binmode
    end
    out_reader = Thread.new { o.read }
    err_reader = Thread.new { e.read }
    i.write stdin_data
    i.close
    [out_reader.value, err_reader.value, t.value]
  }
end

.pipeline(*cmds, **opts) ⇒ Object

Open3.pipeline starts a list of commands as a pipeline. It waits for the completion of the commands. No pipes are created for stdin of the first command and stdout of the last command.

status_list = Open3.pipeline(cmd1, cmd2, ... [, opts])

Each cmd is a string or an array. If it is an array, the elements are passed to Process.spawn.

cmd:
  commandline                              command line string which is passed to a shell
  [env, commandline, opts]                 command line string which is passed to a shell
  [env, cmdname, arg1, ..., opts]          command name and one or more arguments (no shell)
  [env, [cmdname, argv0], arg1, ..., opts] command name and arguments including argv[0] (no shell)

Note that env and opts are optional, as Process.spawn.

Example:

fname = "/usr/share/man/man1/ruby.1.gz"
p Open3.pipeline(["zcat", fname], "nroff -man", "less")
#=> [#<Process::Status: pid 11817 exit 0>,
#    #<Process::Status: pid 11820 exit 0>,
#    #<Process::Status: pid 11828 exit 0>]

fname = "/usr/share/man/man1/ls.1.gz"
Open3.pipeline(["zcat", fname], "nroff -man", "colcrt")

# convert PDF to PS and send to a printer by lpr
pdf_file = "paper.pdf"
printer = "printer-name"
Open3.pipeline(["pdftops", pdf_file, "-"],
               ["lpr", "-P#{printer}"])

# count lines
Open3.pipeline("sort", "uniq -c", :in=>"names.txt", :out=>"count")

# cyclic pipeline
r,w = IO.pipe
w.print "ibase=14\n10\n"
Open3.pipeline("bc", "tee /dev/tty", :in=>r, :out=>w)
#=> 14
#   18
#   22
#   30
#   42
#   58
#   78
#   106
#   202

583
584
585
586
587
# File 'lib/open3.rb', line 583

def pipeline(*cmds, **opts)
  pipeline_run(cmds, opts, [], []) {|ts|
    ts.map {|t| t.value }
  }
end

.pipeline_r(*cmds, **opts, &block) ⇒ Object

Open3.pipeline_r starts a list of commands as a pipeline with a pipe which connects to stdout of the last command.

Open3.pipeline_r(cmd1, cmd2, ... [, opts]) {|last_stdout, wait_threads|
  ...
}

last_stdout, wait_threads = Open3.pipeline_r(cmd1, cmd2, ... [, opts])
...
last_stdout.close

Each cmd is a string or an array. If it is an array, the elements are passed to Process.spawn.

cmd:
  commandline                              command line string which is passed to a shell
  [env, commandline, opts]                 command line string which is passed to a shell
  [env, cmdname, arg1, ..., opts]          command name and one or more arguments (no shell)
  [env, [cmdname, argv0], arg1, ..., opts] command name and arguments including argv[0] (no shell)

Note that env and opts are optional, as for Process.spawn.

Example:

Open3.pipeline_r("zcat /var/log/apache2/access.log.*.gz",
                 [{"LANG"=>"C"}, "grep", "GET /favicon.ico"],
                 "logresolve") {|o, ts|
  o.each_line {|line|
    ...
  }
}

Open3.pipeline_r("yes", "head -10") {|o, ts|
  p o.read      #=> "y\ny\ny\ny\ny\ny\ny\ny\ny\ny\n"
  p ts[0].value #=> #<Process::Status: pid 24910 SIGPIPE (signal 13)>
  p ts[1].value #=> #<Process::Status: pid 24913 exit 0>
}

432
433
434
435
436
437
# File 'lib/open3.rb', line 432

def pipeline_r(*cmds, **opts, &block)
  out_r, out_w = IO.pipe
  opts[:out] = out_w

  pipeline_run(cmds, opts, [out_w], [out_r], &block)
end

.pipeline_rw(*cmds, **opts, &block) ⇒ Object

Open3.pipeline_rw starts a list of commands as a pipeline with pipes which connect to stdin of the first command and stdout of the last command.

Open3.pipeline_rw(cmd1, cmd2, ... [, opts]) {|first_stdin, last_stdout, wait_threads|
  ...
}

first_stdin, last_stdout, wait_threads = Open3.pipeline_rw(cmd1, cmd2, ... [, opts])
...
first_stdin.close
last_stdout.close

Each cmd is a string or an array. If it is an array, the elements are passed to Process.spawn.

cmd:
  commandline                              command line string which is passed to a shell
  [env, commandline, opts]                 command line string which is passed to a shell
  [env, cmdname, arg1, ..., opts]          command name and one or more arguments (no shell)
  [env, [cmdname, argv0], arg1, ..., opts] command name and arguments including argv[0] (no shell)

Note that env and opts are optional, as for Process.spawn.

The options to pass to Process.spawn are constructed by merging opts, the last hash element of the array, and specifications for the pipes between each of the commands.

Example:

Open3.pipeline_rw("tr -dc A-Za-z", "wc -c") {|i, o, ts|
  i.puts "All persons more than a mile high to leave the court."
  i.close
  p o.gets #=> "42\n"
}

Open3.pipeline_rw("sort", "cat -n") {|stdin, stdout, wait_thrs|
  stdin.puts "foo"
  stdin.puts "bar"
  stdin.puts "baz"
  stdin.close     # send EOF to sort.
  p stdout.read   #=> "     1\tbar\n     2\tbaz\n     3\tfoo\n"
}

382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
# File 'lib/open3.rb', line 382

def pipeline_rw(*cmds, **opts, &block)
  in_r, in_w = IO.pipe
  opts[:in] = in_r
  in_w.sync = true

  out_r, out_w = IO.pipe
  opts[:out] = out_w

  pipeline_run(cmds, opts, [in_r, out_w], [in_w, out_r], &block)
end

.pipeline_start(*cmds, **opts, &block) ⇒ Object

Open3.pipeline_start starts a list of commands as a pipeline. No pipes are created for stdin of the first command and stdout of the last command.

Open3.pipeline_start(cmd1, cmd2, ... [, opts]) {|wait_threads|
  ...
}

wait_threads = Open3.pipeline_start(cmd1, cmd2, ... [, opts])
...

Each cmd is a string or an array. If it is an array, the elements are passed to Process.spawn.

cmd:
  commandline                              command line string which is passed to a shell
  [env, commandline, opts]                 command line string which is passed to a shell
  [env, cmdname, arg1, ..., opts]          command name and one or more arguments (no shell)
  [env, [cmdname, argv0], arg1, ..., opts] command name and arguments including argv[0] (no shell)

Note that env and opts are optional, as for Process.spawn.

Example:

# Run xeyes in 10 seconds.
Open3.pipeline_start("xeyes") {|ts|
  sleep 10
  t = ts[0]
  Process.kill("TERM", t.pid)
  p t.value #=> #<Process::Status: pid 911 SIGTERM (signal 15)>
}

# Convert pdf to ps and send it to a printer.
# Collect error message of pdftops and lpr.
pdf_file = "paper.pdf"
printer = "printer-name"
err_r, err_w = IO.pipe
Open3.pipeline_start(["pdftops", pdf_file, "-"],
                     ["lpr", "-P#{printer}"],
                     :err=>err_w) {|ts|
  err_w.close
  p err_r.read # error messages of pdftops and lpr.
}

521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
# File 'lib/open3.rb', line 521

def pipeline_start(*cmds, **opts, &block)
  if block
    pipeline_run(cmds, opts, [], [], &block)
  else
    ts, = pipeline_run(cmds, opts, [], [])
    ts
  end
end

.pipeline_w(*cmds, **opts, &block) ⇒ Object

Open3.pipeline_w starts a list of commands as a pipeline with a pipe which connects to stdin of the first command.

Open3.pipeline_w(cmd1, cmd2, ... [, opts]) {|first_stdin, wait_threads|
  ...
}

first_stdin, wait_threads = Open3.pipeline_w(cmd1, cmd2, ... [, opts])
...
first_stdin.close

Each cmd is a string or an array. If it is an array, the elements are passed to Process.spawn.

cmd:
  commandline                              command line string which is passed to a shell
  [env, commandline, opts]                 command line string which is passed to a shell
  [env, cmdname, arg1, ..., opts]          command name and one or more arguments (no shell)
  [env, [cmdname, argv0], arg1, ..., opts] command name and arguments including argv[0] (no shell)

Note that env and opts are optional, as for Process.spawn.

Example:

Open3.pipeline_w("bzip2 -c", :out=>"/tmp/hello.bz2") {|i, ts|
  i.puts "hello"
}

468
469
470
471
472
473
474
# File 'lib/open3.rb', line 468

def pipeline_w(*cmds, **opts, &block)
  in_r, in_w = IO.pipe
  opts[:in] = in_r
  in_w.sync = true

  pipeline_run(cmds, opts, [in_r], [in_w], &block)
end

.popen2(*cmd, **opts, &block) ⇒ Object

Open3.popen2 is similar to Open3.popen3 except that it doesn't create a pipe for the standard error stream.

Block form:

Open3.popen2([env,] cmd... [, opts]) {|stdin, stdout, wait_thr|
  pid = wait_thr.pid # pid of the started process.
  ...
  exit_status = wait_thr.value # Process::Status object returned.
}

Non-block form:

stdin, stdout, wait_thr = Open3.popen2([env,] cmd... [, opts])
...
stdin.close  # stdin and stdout should be closed explicitly in this form.
stdout.close

See Process.spawn for the optional hash arguments env and opts.

Example:

Open3.popen2("wc -c") {|i,o,t|
  i.print "answer to life the universe and everything"
  i.close
  p o.gets #=> "42\n"
}

Open3.popen2("bc -q") {|i,o,t|
  i.puts "obase=13"
  i.puts "6 * 9"
  p o.gets #=> "42\n"
}

Open3.popen2("dc") {|i,o,t|
  i.print "42P"
  i.close
  p o.read #=> "*"
}

137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
# File 'lib/open3.rb', line 137

def popen2(*cmd, **opts, &block)
  in_r, in_w = IO.pipe
  opts[:in] = in_r
  in_w.sync = true

  out_r, out_w = IO.pipe
  opts[:out] = out_w

  popen_run(cmd, opts, [in_r, out_w], [in_w, out_r], &block)
end

.popen2e(*cmd, **opts, &block) ⇒ Object

Open3.popen2e is similar to Open3.popen3 except that it merges the standard output stream and the standard error stream.

Block form:

Open3.popen2e([env,] cmd... [, opts]) {|stdin, stdout_and_stderr, wait_thr|
  pid = wait_thr.pid # pid of the started process.
  ...
  exit_status = wait_thr.value # Process::Status object returned.
}

Non-block form:

stdin, stdout_and_stderr, wait_thr = Open3.popen2e([env,] cmd... [, opts])
...
stdin.close  # stdin and stdout_and_stderr should be closed explicitly in this form.
stdout_and_stderr.close

See Process.spawn for the optional hash arguments env and opts.

Example:

# check gcc warnings
source = "foo.c"
Open3.popen2e("gcc", "-Wall", source) {|i,oe,t|
  oe.each {|line|
    if /warning/ =~ line
      ...
    end
  }
}

180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
# File 'lib/open3.rb', line 180

def popen2e(*cmd, **opts, &block)
  in_r, in_w = IO.pipe
  opts[:in] = in_r
  in_w.sync = true

  out_r, out_w = IO.pipe
  opts[[:out, :err]] = out_w

  popen_run(cmd, opts, [in_r, out_w], [in_w, out_r], &block)
end

.popen3(*cmd, **opts, &block) ⇒ Object

Open stdin, stdout, and stderr streams and start external executable. In addition, a thread to wait for the started process is created. The thread has a pid method and a thread variable :pid which is the pid of the started process.

Block form:

Open3.popen3([env,] cmd... [, opts]) {|stdin, stdout, stderr, wait_thr|
  pid = wait_thr.pid # pid of the started process.
  ...
  exit_status = wait_thr.value # Process::Status object returned.
}

Non-block form:

stdin, stdout, stderr, wait_thr = Open3.popen3([env,] cmd... [, opts])
pid = wait_thr[:pid]  # pid of the started process
...
stdin.close  # stdin, stdout and stderr should be closed explicitly in this form.
stdout.close
stderr.close
exit_status = wait_thr.value  # Process::Status object returned.

The parameters env, cmd, and opts are passed to Process.spawn. A commandline string and a list of argument strings can be accepted as follows:

Open3.popen3("echo abc") {|i, o, e, t| ... }
Open3.popen3("echo", "abc") {|i, o, e, t| ... }
Open3.popen3(["echo", "argv0"], "abc") {|i, o, e, t| ... }

If the last parameter, opts, is a Hash, it is recognized as an option for Process.spawn.

Open3.popen3("pwd", :chdir=>"/") {|i,o,e,t|
  p o.read.chomp #=> "/"
}

wait_thr.value waits for the termination of the process. The block form also waits for the process when it returns.

Closing stdin, stdout and stderr does not wait for the process to complete.

You should be careful to avoid deadlocks. Since pipes are fixed length buffers, Open3.popen3(“prog”) {|i, o, e, t| o.read } deadlocks if the program generates too much output on stderr. You should read stdout and stderr simultaneously (using threads or IO.select). However, if you don't need stderr output, you can use Open3.popen2. If merged stdout and stderr output is not a problem, you can use Open3.popen2e. If you really need stdout and stderr output as separate strings, you can consider Open3.capture3.


82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
# File 'lib/open3.rb', line 82

def popen3(*cmd, **opts, &block)
  in_r, in_w = IO.pipe
  opts[:in] = in_r
  in_w.sync = true

  out_r, out_w = IO.pipe
  opts[:out] = out_w

  err_r, err_w = IO.pipe
  opts[:err] = err_w

  popen_run(cmd, opts, [in_r, out_w, err_w], [in_w, out_r, err_r], &block)
end