Class: Time

Inherits:
Object
  • Object
show all
Defined in:
lib/time.rb

Overview

time.rb

When 'time' is required, Time is extended with additional methods for parsing and converting Times.

Features

This library extends the Time class with the following conversions between date strings and Time objects:

  • date-time defined by RFC 2822

  • HTTP-date defined by RFC 2616

  • dateTime defined by XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes (ISO 8601)

  • various formats handled by Date._parse

  • custom formats handled by Date._strptime

Examples

All examples assume you have loaded Time with:

require 'time'

All of these examples were done using the EST timezone which is GMT-5.

Converting to a String

t = Time.now
t.iso8601  # => "2011-10-05T22:26:12-04:00"
t.rfc2822  # => "Wed, 05 Oct 2011 22:26:12 -0400"
t.httpdate # => "Thu, 06 Oct 2011 02:26:12 GMT"

Time.parse

#parse takes a string representation of a Time and attempts to parse it using a heuristic.

Date.parse("2010-10-31") #=> 2010-10-31 00:00:00 -0500

Any missing pieces of the date are inferred based on the current date.

# assuming the current date is "2011-10-31"
Time.parse("12:00") #=> 2011-10-31 12:00:00 -0500

We can change the date used to infer our missing elements by passing a second object that responds to #mon, #day and #year, such as Date, Time or DateTime. We can also use our own object.

class MyDate
  attr_reader :mon, :day, :year

  def initialize(mon, day, year)
    @mon, @day, @year = mon, day, year
  end
end

d  = Date.parse("2010-10-28")
t  = Time.parse("2010-10-29")
dt = DateTime.parse("2010-10-30")
md = MyDate.new(10,31,2010)

Time.parse("12:00", d)  #=> 2010-10-28 12:00:00 -0500
Time.parse("12:00", t)  #=> 2010-10-29 12:00:00 -0500
Time.parse("12:00", dt) #=> 2010-10-30 12:00:00 -0500
Time.parse("12:00", md) #=> 2010-10-31 12:00:00 -0500

#parse also accepts an optional block. You can use this block to specify how to handle the year component of the date. This is specifically designed for handling two digit years. For example, if you wanted to treat all two digit years prior to 70 as the year 2000+ you could write this:

Time.parse("01-10-31") {|year| year + (year < 70 ? 2000 : 1900)}
#=> 2001-10-31 00:00:00 -0500
Time.parse("70-10-31") {|year| year + (year < 70 ? 2000 : 1900)}
#=> 1970-10-31 00:00:00 -0500

Time.strptime

#strptime works similar to parse except that instead of using a heuristic to detect the format of the input string, you provide a second argument that is describes the format of the string. For example:

Time.strptime("2000-10-31", "%Y-%m-%d") #=> 2000-10-31 00:00:00 -0500

Constant Summary collapse

ZoneOffset =

A hash of timezones mapped to hour differences from UTC. The set of time zones corresponds to the ones specified by RFC 2822 and ISO 8601.

{ # :nodoc:
  'UTC' => 0,
  # ISO 8601
  'Z' => 0,
  # RFC 822
  'UT' => 0, 'GMT' => 0,
  'EST' => -5, 'EDT' => -4,
  'CST' => -6, 'CDT' => -5,
  'MST' => -7, 'MDT' => -6,
  'PST' => -8, 'PDT' => -7,
  # Following definition of military zones is original one.
  # See RFC 1123 and RFC 2822 for the error in RFC 822.
  'A' => +1, 'B' => +2, 'C' => +3, 'D' => +4,  'E' => +5,  'F' => +6,
  'G' => +7, 'H' => +8, 'I' => +9, 'K' => +10, 'L' => +11, 'M' => +12,
  'N' => -1, 'O' => -2, 'P' => -3, 'Q' => -4,  'R' => -5,  'S' => -6,
  'T' => -7, 'U' => -8, 'V' => -9, 'W' => -10, 'X' => -11, 'Y' => -12,
}
LeapYearMonthDays =
[31, 29, 31, 30, 31, 30, 31, 31, 30, 31, 30, 31]
CommonYearMonthDays =
[31, 28, 31, 30, 31, 30, 31, 31, 30, 31, 30, 31]
MonthValue =
{
  'JAN' => 1, 'FEB' => 2, 'MAR' => 3, 'APR' => 4, 'MAY' => 5, 'JUN' => 6,
  'JUL' => 7, 'AUG' => 8, 'SEP' => 9, 'OCT' =>10, 'NOV' =>11, 'DEC' =>12
}
RFC2822_DAY_NAME =
[
  'Sun', 'Mon', 'Tue', 'Wed', 'Thu', 'Fri', 'Sat'
]
RFC2822_MONTH_NAME =
[
  'Jan', 'Feb', 'Mar', 'Apr', 'May', 'Jun',
  'Jul', 'Aug', 'Sep', 'Oct', 'Nov', 'Dec'
]

Class Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Class Method Details

.httpdate(date) ⇒ Object

Parses date as an HTTP-date defined by RFC 2616 and converts it to a Time object.

ArgumentError is raised if date is not compliant with RFC 2616 or if the Time class cannot represent specified date.

See #httpdate for more information on this format.

You must require 'time' to use this method.


472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
# File 'lib/time.rb', line 472

def httpdate(date)
  if /\A\s*
      (?:Mon|Tue|Wed|Thu|Fri|Sat|Sun),\x20
      (\d{2})\x20
      (Jan|Feb|Mar|Apr|May|Jun|Jul|Aug|Sep|Oct|Nov|Dec)\x20
      (\d{4})\x20
      (\d{2}):(\d{2}):(\d{2})\x20
      GMT
      \s*\z/ix =~ date
    self.rfc2822(date)
  elsif /\A\s*
         (?:Monday|Tuesday|Wednesday|Thursday|Friday|Saturday|Sunday),\x20
         (\d\d)-(Jan|Feb|Mar|Apr|May|Jun|Jul|Aug|Sep|Oct|Nov|Dec)-(\d\d)\x20
         (\d\d):(\d\d):(\d\d)\x20
         GMT
         \s*\z/ix =~ date
    year = $3.to_i
    if year < 50
      year += 2000
    else
      year += 1900
    end
    self.utc(year, $2, $1.to_i, $4.to_i, $5.to_i, $6.to_i)
  elsif /\A\s*
         (?:Mon|Tue|Wed|Thu|Fri|Sat|Sun)\x20
         (Jan|Feb|Mar|Apr|May|Jun|Jul|Aug|Sep|Oct|Nov|Dec)\x20
         (\d\d|\x20\d)\x20
         (\d\d):(\d\d):(\d\d)\x20
         (\d{4})
         \s*\z/ix =~ date
    self.utc($6.to_i, MonthValue[$1.upcase], $2.to_i,
             $3.to_i, $4.to_i, $5.to_i)
  else
    raise ArgumentError.new("not RFC 2616 compliant date: #{date.inspect}")
  end
end

.iso8601Object

Parses date as a dateTime defined by the XML Schema and converts it to a Time object. The format is a restricted version of the format defined by ISO 8601.

ArgumentError is raised if date is not compliant with the format or if the Time class cannot represent specified date.

See #xmlschema for more information on this format.

You must require 'time' to use this method.


551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
# File 'lib/time.rb', line 551

def xmlschema(date)
  if /\A\s*
      (-?\d+)-(\d\d)-(\d\d)
      T
      (\d\d):(\d\d):(\d\d)
      (\.\d+)?
      (Z|[+-]\d\d:\d\d)?
      \s*\z/ix =~ date
    year = $1.to_i
    mon = $2.to_i
    day = $3.to_i
    hour = $4.to_i
    min = $5.to_i
    sec = $6.to_i
    usec = 0
    if $7
      usec = Rational($7) * 1000000
    end
    if $8
      zone = $8
      year, mon, day, hour, min, sec =
        apply_offset(year, mon, day, hour, min, sec, zone_offset(zone))
      self.utc(year, mon, day, hour, min, sec, usec)
    else
      self.local(year, mon, day, hour, min, sec, usec)
    end
  else
    raise ArgumentError.new("invalid date: #{date.inspect}")
  end
end

.parse(date, now = self.now) ⇒ Object

Parses date using Date._parse and converts it to a Time object.

If a block is given, the year described in date is converted by the block. For example:

Time.parse(...) {|y| 0 <= y && y < 100 ? (y >= 69 ? y + 1900 : y + 2000) : y}

If the upper components of the given time are broken or missing, they are supplied with those of now. For the lower components, the minimum values (1 or 0) are assumed if broken or missing. For example:

# Suppose it is "Thu Nov 29 14:33:20 GMT 2001" now and
# your time zone is GMT:
now = Time.parse("Thu Nov 29 14:33:20 GMT 2001")
Time.parse("16:30", now)     #=> 2001-11-29 16:30:00 +0900
Time.parse("7/23", now)      #=> 2001-07-23 00:00:00 +0900
Time.parse("Aug 31", now)    #=> 2001-08-31 00:00:00 +0900
Time.parse("Aug 2000", now)  #=> 2000-08-01 00:00:00 +0900

Since there are numerous conflicts among locally defined time zone abbreviations all over the world, this method is not intended to understand all of them. For example, the abbreviation “CST” is used variously as:

-06:00 in America/Chicago,
-05:00 in America/Havana,
+08:00 in Asia/Harbin,
+09:30 in Australia/Darwin,
+10:30 in Australia/Adelaide,
etc.

Based on this fact, this method only understands the time zone abbreviations described in RFC 822 and the system time zone, in the order named. (i.e. a definition in RFC 822 overrides the system time zone definition.) The system time zone is taken from Time.local(year, 1, 1).zone and Time.local(year, 7, 1).zone. If the extracted time zone abbreviation does not match any of them, it is ignored and the given time is regarded as a local time.

ArgumentError is raised if Date._parse cannot extract information from date or if the Time class cannot represent specified date.

This method can be used as a fail-safe for other parsing methods as:

Time.rfc2822(date) rescue Time.parse(date)
Time.httpdate(date) rescue Time.parse(date)
Time.xmlschema(date) rescue Time.parse(date)

A failure of Time.parse should be checked, though.

You must require 'time' to use this method.


323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
# File 'lib/time.rb', line 323

def parse(date, now=self.now)
  comp = !block_given?
  d = Date._parse(date, comp)
  if !d[:year] && !d[:mon] && !d[:mday] && !d[:hour] && !d[:min] && !d[:sec] && !d[:sec_fraction]
    raise ArgumentError, "no time information in #{date.inspect}"
  end
  year = d[:year]
  year = yield(year) if year && !comp
  make_time(year, d[:mon], d[:mday], d[:hour], d[:min], d[:sec], d[:sec_fraction], d[:zone], now)
end

.rfc2822(date) ⇒ Object

Parses date as date-time defined by RFC 2822 and converts it to a Time object. The format is identical to the date format defined by RFC 822 and updated by RFC 1123.

ArgumentError is raised if date is not compliant with RFC 2822 or if the Time class cannot represent specified date.

See #rfc2822 for more information on this format.

You must require 'time' to use this method.


421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
# File 'lib/time.rb', line 421

def rfc2822(date)
  if /\A\s*
      (?:(?:Mon|Tue|Wed|Thu|Fri|Sat|Sun)\s*,\s*)?
      (\d{1,2})\s+
      (Jan|Feb|Mar|Apr|May|Jun|Jul|Aug|Sep|Oct|Nov|Dec)\s+
      (\d{2,})\s+
      (\d{2})\s*
      :\s*(\d{2})\s*
      (?::\s*(\d{2}))?\s+
      ([+-]\d{4}|
       UT|GMT|EST|EDT|CST|CDT|MST|MDT|PST|PDT|[A-IK-Z])/ix =~ date
    # Since RFC 2822 permit comments, the regexp has no right anchor.
    day = $1.to_i
    mon = MonthValue[$2.upcase]
    year = $3.to_i
    hour = $4.to_i
    min = $5.to_i
    sec = $6 ? $6.to_i : 0
    zone = $7

    # following year completion is compliant with RFC 2822.
    year = if year < 50
             2000 + year
           elsif year < 1000
             1900 + year
           else
             year
           end

    year, mon, day, hour, min, sec =
      apply_offset(year, mon, day, hour, min, sec, zone_offset(zone))
    t = self.utc(year, mon, day, hour, min, sec)
    t.localtime if !zone_utc?(zone)
    t
  else
    raise ArgumentError.new("not RFC 2822 compliant date: #{date.inspect}")
  end
end

.rfc822Object

Parses date as date-time defined by RFC 2822 and converts it to a Time object. The format is identical to the date format defined by RFC 822 and updated by RFC 1123.

ArgumentError is raised if date is not compliant with RFC 2822 or if the Time class cannot represent specified date.

See #rfc2822 for more information on this format.

You must require 'time' to use this method.


459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
# File 'lib/time.rb', line 459

def rfc2822(date)
  if /\A\s*
      (?:(?:Mon|Tue|Wed|Thu|Fri|Sat|Sun)\s*,\s*)?
      (\d{1,2})\s+
      (Jan|Feb|Mar|Apr|May|Jun|Jul|Aug|Sep|Oct|Nov|Dec)\s+
      (\d{2,})\s+
      (\d{2})\s*
      :\s*(\d{2})\s*
      (?::\s*(\d{2}))?\s+
      ([+-]\d{4}|
       UT|GMT|EST|EDT|CST|CDT|MST|MDT|PST|PDT|[A-IK-Z])/ix =~ date
    # Since RFC 2822 permit comments, the regexp has no right anchor.
    day = $1.to_i
    mon = MonthValue[$2.upcase]
    year = $3.to_i
    hour = $4.to_i
    min = $5.to_i
    sec = $6 ? $6.to_i : 0
    zone = $7

    # following year completion is compliant with RFC 2822.
    year = if year < 50
             2000 + year
           elsif year < 1000
             1900 + year
           else
             year
           end

    year, mon, day, hour, min, sec =
      apply_offset(year, mon, day, hour, min, sec, zone_offset(zone))
    t = self.utc(year, mon, day, hour, min, sec)
    t.localtime if !zone_utc?(zone)
    t
  else
    raise ArgumentError.new("not RFC 2822 compliant date: #{date.inspect}")
  end
end

.strptime(date, format, now = self.now) ⇒ Object

Parses date using Date._strptime and converts it to a Time object.

If a block is given, the year described in date is converted by the block. For example:

Time.strptime(...) {|y| y < 100 ? (y >= 69 ? y + 1900 : y + 2000) : y}

Below is a list of the formating options:

%a

The abbreviated weekday name (“Sun”)

%A

The full weekday name (“Sunday”)

%b

The abbreviated month name (“Jan”)

%B

The full month name (“January”)

%c

The preferred local date and time representation

%C

Century (20 in 2009)

%d

Day of the month (01..31)

%D

Date (%m/%d/%y)

%e

Day of the month, blank-padded ( 1..31)

%F

Equivalent to %Y-%m-%d (the ISO 8601 date format)

%h

Equivalent to %b

%H

Hour of the day, 24-hour clock (00..23)

%I

Hour of the day, 12-hour clock (01..12)

%j

Day of the year (001..366)

%k

hour, 24-hour clock, blank-padded ( 0..23)

%l

hour, 12-hour clock, blank-padded ( 0..12)

%L

Millisecond of the second (000..999)

%m

Month of the year (01..12)

%M

Minute of the hour (00..59)

%n

Newline (n)

%N

Fractional seconds digits, default is 9 digits (nanosecond)

%3N

millisecond (3 digits)

%6N

microsecond (6 digits)

%9N

nanosecond (9 digits)

%p

Meridian indicator (“AM” or “PM”)

%P

Meridian indicator (“am” or “pm”)

%r

time, 12-hour (same as %I:%M:%S %p)

%R

time, 24-hour (%H:%M)

%s

Number of seconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC.

%S

Second of the minute (00..60)

%t

Tab character (t)

%T

time, 24-hour (%H:%M:%S)

%u

Day of the week as a decimal, Monday being 1. (1..7)

%U

Week number of the current year, starting with the first Sunday as the first day of the first week (00..53)

%v

VMS date (%e-%b-%Y)

%V

Week number of year according to ISO 8601 (01..53)

%W

Week number of the current year, starting with the first Monday as the first day of the first week (00..53)

%w

Day of the week (Sunday is 0, 0..6)

%x

Preferred representation for the date alone, no time

%X

Preferred representation for the time alone, no date

%y

Year without a century (00..99)

%Y

Year with century

%z

Time zone as hour offset from UTC (e.g. +0900)

%Z

Time zone name

%%

Literal “%” character

Raises:

  • (ArgumentError)

392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
# File 'lib/time.rb', line 392

def strptime(date, format, now=self.now)
  d = Date._strptime(date, format)
  raise ArgumentError, "invalid strptime format - `#{format}'" unless d
  if seconds = d[:seconds]
    Time.at(seconds)
  else
    year = d[:year]
    year = yield(year) if year && block_given?
    make_time(year, d[:mon], d[:mday], d[:hour], d[:min], d[:sec], d[:sec_fraction], d[:zone], now)
  end
end

.xmlschema(date) ⇒ Object

Parses date as a dateTime defined by the XML Schema and converts it to a Time object. The format is a restricted version of the format defined by ISO 8601.

ArgumentError is raised if date is not compliant with the format or if the Time class cannot represent specified date.

See #xmlschema for more information on this format.

You must require 'time' to use this method.


521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
# File 'lib/time.rb', line 521

def xmlschema(date)
  if /\A\s*
      (-?\d+)-(\d\d)-(\d\d)
      T
      (\d\d):(\d\d):(\d\d)
      (\.\d+)?
      (Z|[+-]\d\d:\d\d)?
      \s*\z/ix =~ date
    year = $1.to_i
    mon = $2.to_i
    day = $3.to_i
    hour = $4.to_i
    min = $5.to_i
    sec = $6.to_i
    usec = 0
    if $7
      usec = Rational($7) * 1000000
    end
    if $8
      zone = $8
      year, mon, day, hour, min, sec =
        apply_offset(year, mon, day, hour, min, sec, zone_offset(zone))
      self.utc(year, mon, day, hour, min, sec, usec)
    else
      self.local(year, mon, day, hour, min, sec, usec)
    end
  else
    raise ArgumentError.new("invalid date: #{date.inspect}")
  end
end

.zone_offset(zone, year = self.now.year) ⇒ Object

Return the number of seconds the specified time zone differs from UTC.

Numeric time zones that include minutes, such as -10:00 or +1330 will work, as will simpler hour-only time zones like -10 or +13.

Textual time zones listed in ZoneOffset are also supported.

If the time zone does not match any of the above, zone_offset will check if the local time zone (both with and without potential Daylight Saving Time changes being in effect) matches zone. Specifying a value for year will change the year used to find the local time zone.

If zone_offset is unable to determine the offset, nil will be returned.


132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
# File 'lib/time.rb', line 132

def zone_offset(zone, year=self.now.year)
  off = nil
  zone = zone.upcase
  if /\A([+-])(\d\d):?(\d\d)\z/ =~ zone
    off = ($1 == '-' ? -1 : 1) * ($2.to_i * 60 + $3.to_i) * 60
  elsif /\A[+-]\d\d\z/ =~ zone
    off = zone.to_i * 3600
  elsif ZoneOffset.include?(zone)
    off = ZoneOffset[zone] * 3600
  elsif ((t = self.local(year, 1, 1)).zone.upcase == zone rescue false)
    off = t.utc_offset
  elsif ((t = self.local(year, 7, 1)).zone.upcase == zone rescue false)
    off = t.utc_offset
  end
  off
end

Instance Method Details

#httpdateObject

Returns a string which represents the time as RFC 1123 date of HTTP-date defined by RFC 2616:

day-of-week, DD month-name CCYY hh:mm:ss GMT

Note that the result is always UTC (GMT).

You must require 'time' to use this method.


598
599
600
601
602
603
604
# File 'lib/time.rb', line 598

def httpdate
  t = dup.utc
  sprintf('%s, %02d %s %0*d %02d:%02d:%02d GMT',
    RFC2822_DAY_NAME[t.wday],
    t.day, RFC2822_MONTH_NAME[t.mon-1], t.year < 0 ? 5 : 4, t.year,
    t.hour, t.min, t.sec)
end

#rfc2822Object Also known as: rfc822

Returns a string which represents the time as date-time defined by RFC 2822:

day-of-week, DD month-name CCYY hh:mm:ss zone

where zone is [+-]hhmm.

If self is a UTC time, -0000 is used as zone.

You must require 'time' to use this method.


565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
# File 'lib/time.rb', line 565

def rfc2822
  sprintf('%s, %02d %s %0*d %02d:%02d:%02d ',
    RFC2822_DAY_NAME[wday],
    day, RFC2822_MONTH_NAME[mon-1], year < 0 ? 5 : 4, year,
    hour, min, sec) +
  if utc?
    '-0000'
  else
    off = utc_offset
    sign = off < 0 ? '-' : '+'
    sprintf('%s%02d%02d', sign, *(off.abs / 60).divmod(60))
  end
end

#xmlschema(fraction_digits = 0) ⇒ Object Also known as: iso8601

Returns a string which represents the time as a dateTime defined by XML Schema:

CCYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ssTZD
CCYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss.sssTZD

where TZD is Z or [+-]hh:mm.

If self is a UTC time, Z is used as TZD. [+-]hh:mm is used otherwise.

fractional_digits specifies a number of digits to use for fractional seconds. Its default value is 0.

You must require 'time' to use this method.


622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
# File 'lib/time.rb', line 622

def xmlschema(fraction_digits=0)
  fraction_digits = fraction_digits.to_i
  s = strftime("%FT%T")
  if fraction_digits > 0
    s << strftime(".%#{fraction_digits}N")
  end
  s << (utc? ? 'Z' : strftime("%:z"))
end