Class: Net::SSH::Connection::Session

Inherits:
Object
  • Object
show all
Includes:
Constants, Loggable
Defined in:
lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb

Overview

A session class representing the connection service running on top of the SSH transport layer. It manages the creation of channels (see #open_channel), and the dispatching of messages to the various channels. It also encapsulates the SSH event loop (via #loop and #process), and serves as a central point-of-reference for all SSH-related services (e.g. port forwarding, SFTP, SCP, etc.).

You will rarely (if ever) need to instantiate this class directly; rather, you'll almost always use Net::SSH.start to initialize a new network connection, authenticate a user, and return a new connection session, all in one call.

Net::SSH.start("localhost", "user") do |ssh|
  # 'ssh' is an instance of Net::SSH::Connection::Session
  ssh.exec! "/etc/init.d/some_process start"
end

Defined Under Namespace

Classes: NilChannel

Constant Summary collapse

DEFAULT_IO_SELECT_TIMEOUT =

Default IO.select timeout threshold

300

Constants included from Constants

Constants::CHANNEL_CLOSE, Constants::CHANNEL_DATA, Constants::CHANNEL_EOF, Constants::CHANNEL_EXTENDED_DATA, Constants::CHANNEL_FAILURE, Constants::CHANNEL_OPEN, Constants::CHANNEL_OPEN_CONFIRMATION, Constants::CHANNEL_OPEN_FAILURE, Constants::CHANNEL_REQUEST, Constants::CHANNEL_SUCCESS, Constants::CHANNEL_WINDOW_ADJUST, Constants::GLOBAL_REQUEST, Constants::REQUEST_FAILURE, Constants::REQUEST_SUCCESS

Instance Attribute Summary collapse

Attributes included from Loggable

#logger

Instance Method Summary collapse

Methods included from Loggable

#debug, #error, #fatal, #info, #lwarn

Constructor Details

#initialize(transport, options = {}) ⇒ Session

Create a new connection service instance atop the given transport layer. Initializes the listeners to be only the underlying socket object.


66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 66

def initialize(transport, options={})
  self.logger = transport.logger

  @transport = transport
  @options = options

  @channel_id_counter = -1
  @channels = Hash.new(NilChannel.new(self))
  @listeners = { transport.socket => nil }
  @pending_requests = []
  @channel_open_handlers = {}
  @on_global_request = {}
  @properties = (options[:properties] || {}).dup

  @max_pkt_size = (options.has_key?(:max_pkt_size) ? options[:max_pkt_size] : 0x8000)
  @max_win_size = (options.has_key?(:max_win_size) ? options[:max_win_size] : 0x20000)

  @keepalive = Keepalive.new(self)
end

Instance Attribute Details

#channel_open_handlersObject (readonly)

The map of specialized handlers for opening specific channel types. See #on_open_channel.


49
50
51
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 49

def channel_open_handlers
  @channel_open_handlers
end

#channelsObject (readonly)

The map of channels, each key being the local-id for the channel.


42
43
44
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 42

def channels
  @channels
end

#listenersObject (readonly)

The map of listeners that the event loop knows about. See #listen_to.


45
46
47
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 45

def listeners
  @listeners
end

#optionsObject (readonly)

The map of options that were used to initialize this instance.


36
37
38
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 36

def options
  @options
end

#pending_requestsObject (readonly)

The list of callbacks for pending requests. See #send_global_request.


52
53
54
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 52

def pending_requests
  @pending_requests
end

#propertiesObject (readonly)

The collection of custom properties for this instance. (See #[] and #[]=).


39
40
41
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 39

def properties
  @properties
end

#transportObject (readonly)

The underlying transport layer abstraction (see Net::SSH::Transport::Session).


33
34
35
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 33

def transport
  @transport
end

Instance Method Details

#[](key) ⇒ Object

Retrieves a custom property from this instance. This can be used to store additional state in applications that must manage multiple SSH connections.


89
90
91
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 89

def [](key)
  @properties[key]
end

#[]=(key, value) ⇒ Object

Sets a custom property for this instance.


94
95
96
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 94

def []=(key, value)
  @properties[key] = value
end

#busy?(include_invisible = false) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if there are any channels currently active on this session. By default, this will not include “invisible” channels (such as those created by forwarding ports and such), but if you pass a true value for include_invisible, then those will be counted.

This can be useful for determining whether the event loop should continue to be run.

ssh.loop { ssh.busy? }

143
144
145
146
147
148
149
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 143

def busy?(include_invisible=false)
  if include_invisible
    channels.any?
  else
    channels.any? { |id, ch| !ch[:invisible] }
  end
end

#closeObject

Closes the session gracefully, blocking until all channels have successfully closed, and then closes the underlying transport layer connection.


116
117
118
119
120
121
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 116

def close
  info { "closing remaining channels (#{channels.length} open)" }
  channels.each { |id, channel| channel.close }
  loop(0.1) { channels.any? }
  transport.close
end

#closed?Boolean

Returns true if the underlying transport has been closed. Note that this can be a little misleading, since if the remote server has closed the connection, the local end will still think it is open until the next operation on the socket. Nevertheless, this method can be useful if you just want to know if you have closed the connection.


109
110
111
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 109

def closed?
  transport.closed?
end

#exec(command, &block) ⇒ Object

A convenience method for executing a command and interacting with it. If no block is given, all output is printed via $stdout and $stderr. Otherwise, the block is called for each data and extended data packet, with three arguments: the channel object, a symbol indicating the data type (:stdout or :stderr), and the data (as a string).

Note that this method returns immediately, and requires an event loop (see Session#loop) in order for the command to actually execute.

This is effectively identical to calling #open_channel, and then Net::SSH::Connection::Channel#exec, and then setting up the channel callbacks. However, for most uses, this will be sufficient.

ssh.exec "grep something /some/files" do |ch, stream, data|
  if stream == :stderr
    puts "ERROR: #{data}"
  else
    puts data
  end
end

329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 329

def exec(command, &block)
  open_channel do |channel|
    channel.exec(command) do |ch, success|
      raise "could not execute command: #{command.inspect}" unless success
      
      channel.on_data do |ch2, data|
        if block
          block.call(ch2, :stdout, data)
        else
          $stdout.print(data)
        end
      end

      channel.on_extended_data do |ch2, type, data|
        if block
          block.call(ch2, :stderr, data)
        else
          $stderr.print(data)
        end
      end
    end
  end
end

#exec!(command, &block) ⇒ Object

Same as #exec, except this will block until the command finishes. Also, if a block is not given, this will return all output (stdout and stderr) as a single string.

matches = ssh.exec!("grep something /some/files")

358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 358

def exec!(command, &block)
  block ||= Proc.new do |ch, type, data|
    ch[:result] ||= ""
    ch[:result] << data
  end

  channel = exec(command, &block)
  channel.wait

  return channel[:result]
end

#forwardObject

Returns a reference to the Net::SSH::Service::Forward service, which can be used for forwarding ports over SSH.


427
428
429
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 427

def forward
  @forward ||= Service::Forward.new(self)
end

#hostObject

Returns the name of the host that was given to the transport layer to connect to.


100
101
102
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 100

def host
  transport.host
end

#listen_to(io, &callback) ⇒ Object

Adds an IO object for the event loop to listen to. If a callback is given, it will be invoked when the io is ready to be read, otherwise, the io will merely have its #fill method invoked.

Any io value passed to this method must have mixed into it the Net::SSH::BufferedIo functionality, typically by calling #extend on the object.

The following example executes a process on the remote server, opens a socket to somewhere, and then pipes data from that socket to the remote process' stdin stream:

channel = ssh.open_channel do |ch|
  ch.exec "/some/process/that/wants/input" do |ch, success|
    abort "can't execute!" unless success

    io = TCPSocket.new(somewhere, port)
    io.extend(Net::SSH::BufferedIo)
    ssh.listen_to(io)

    ch.on_process do
      if io.available > 0
        ch.send_data(io.read_available)
      end
    end

    ch.on_close do
      ssh.stop_listening_to(io)
      io.close
    end
  end
end

channel.wait

415
416
417
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 415

def listen_to(io, &callback)
  listeners[io] = callback
end

#loop(wait = nil, &block) ⇒ Object

The main event loop. Calls #process until #process returns false. If a block is given, it is passed to #process, otherwise a default proc is used that just returns true if there are any channels active (see #busy?). The # wait parameter is also passed through to #process (where it is interpreted as the maximum number of seconds to wait for IO.select to return).

# loop for as long as there are any channels active
ssh.loop

# loop for as long as there are any channels active, but make sure
# the event loop runs at least once per 0.1 second
ssh.loop(0.1)

# loop until ctrl-C is pressed
int_pressed = false
trap("INT") { int_pressed = true }
ssh.loop(0.1) { not int_pressed }

168
169
170
171
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 168

def loop(wait=nil, &block)
  running = block || Proc.new { busy? }
  loop_forever { break unless process(wait, &running) }
end

#loop_foreverObject

preserve a reference to Kernel#loop


132
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 132

alias :loop_forever :loop

#on_global_request(type, &block) ⇒ Object

Registers a handler to be invoked when the server sends a global request of the given type. The callback receives the request data as the first parameter, and true/false as the second (indicating whether a response is required). If the callback sends the response, it should return :sent. Otherwise, if it returns true, REQUEST_SUCCESS will be sent, and if it returns false, REQUEST_FAILURE will be sent.


451
452
453
454
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 451

def on_global_request(type, &block)
  old, @on_global_request[type] = @on_global_request[type], block
  old
end

#on_open_channel(type, &block) ⇒ Object

Registers a handler to be invoked when the server wants to open a channel on the client. The callback receives the connection object, the new channel object, and the packet itself as arguments, and should raise ChannelOpenFailed if it is unable to open the channel for some reason. Otherwise, the channel will be opened and a confirmation message sent to the server.

This is used by the Net::SSH::Service::Forward service to open a channel when a remote forwarded port receives a connection. However, you are welcome to register handlers for other channel types, as needed.


441
442
443
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 441

def on_open_channel(type, &block)
  channel_open_handlers[type] = block
end

#open_channel(type = "session", *extra, &on_confirm) ⇒ Object

Requests that a new channel be opened. By default, the channel will be of type “session”, but if you know what you're doing you can select any of the channel types supported by the SSH protocol. The extra parameters must be even in number and conform to the same format as described for Net::SSH::Buffer.from. If a callback is given, it will be invoked when the server confirms that the channel opened successfully. The sole parameter for the callback is the channel object itself.

In general, you'll use #open_channel without any arguments; the only time you'd want to set the channel type or pass additional initialization data is if you were implementing an SSH extension.

channel = ssh.open_channel do |ch|
  ch.exec "grep something /some/files" do |ch, success|
    ...
  end
end

channel.wait

297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 297

def open_channel(type="session", *extra, &on_confirm)
  local_id = get_next_channel_id

  channel = Channel.new(self, type, local_id, @max_pkt_size, @max_win_size, &on_confirm)
  msg = Buffer.from(:byte, CHANNEL_OPEN, :string, type, :long, local_id,
    :long, channel.local_maximum_window_size,
    :long, channel.local_maximum_packet_size, *extra)
  send_message(msg)

  channels[local_id] = channel
end

#postprocess(readers, writers) ⇒ Object

This is called internally as part of #process. It loops over the given arrays of reader IO's and writer IO's, processing them as needed, and then calls Net::SSH::Transport::Session#rekey_as_needed to allow the transport layer to rekey. Then returns true.


232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 232

def postprocess(readers, writers)
  Array(readers).each do |reader|
    if listeners[reader]
      listeners[reader].call(reader)
    else
      if reader.fill.zero?
        reader.close
        stop_listening_to(reader)
      end
    end
  end

  Array(writers).each do |writer|
    writer.send_pending
  end

  @keepalive.send_as_needed(readers, writers)
  transport.rekey_as_needed

  return true
end

#preprocessObject

This is called internally as part of #process. It dispatches any available incoming packets, and then runs Net::SSH::Connection::Channel#process for any active channels. If a block is given, it is invoked at the start of the method and again at the end, and if the block ever returns false, this method returns false. Otherwise, it returns true.


220
221
222
223
224
225
226
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 220

def preprocess
  return false if block_given? && !yield(self)
  dispatch_incoming_packets
  channels.each { |id, channel| channel.process unless channel.closing? }
  return false if block_given? && !yield(self)
  return true
end

#process(wait = nil, &block) ⇒ Object

The core of the event loop. It processes a single iteration of the event loop. If a block is given, it should return false when the processing should abort, which causes #process to return false. Otherwise, #process returns true. The session itself is yielded to the block as its only argument.

If wait is nil (the default), this method will block until any of the monitored IO objects are ready to be read from or written to. If you want it to not block, you can pass 0, or you can pass any other numeric value to indicate that it should block for no more than that many seconds. Passing 0 is a good way to poll the connection, but if you do it too frequently it can make your CPU quite busy!

This will also cause all active channels to be processed once each (see Net::SSH::Connection::Channel#on_process).

# process multiple Net::SSH connections in parallel
connections = [
  Net::SSH.start("host1", ...),
  Net::SSH.start("host2", ...)
]

connections.each do |ssh|
  ssh.exec "grep something /in/some/files"
end

condition = Proc.new { |s| s.busy? }

loop do
  connections.delete_if { |ssh| !ssh.process(0.1, &condition) }
  break if connections.empty?
end

205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 205

def process(wait=nil, &block)
  return false unless preprocess(&block)

  r = listeners.keys
  w = r.select { |w2| w2.respond_to?(:pending_write?) && w2.pending_write? }
  readers, writers, = Net::SSH::Compat.io_select(r, w, nil, io_select_wait(wait))

  postprocess(readers, writers)
end

#send_global_request(type, *extra, &callback) ⇒ Object

Send a global request of the given type. The extra parameters must be even in number, and conform to the same format as described for Net::SSH::Buffer.from. If a callback is not specified, the request will not require a response from the server, otherwise the server is required to respond and indicate whether the request was successful or not. This success or failure is indicated by the callback being invoked, with the first parameter being true or false (success, or failure), and the second being the packet itself.

Generally, Net::SSH will manage global requests that need to be sent (e.g. port forward requests and such are handled in the Net::SSH::Service::Forward class, for instance). However, there may be times when you need to send a global request that isn't explicitly handled by Net::SSH, and so this method is available to you.

ssh.send_global_request("[email protected]")

270
271
272
273
274
275
276
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 270

def send_global_request(type, *extra, &callback)
  info { "sending global request #{type}" }
  msg = Buffer.from(:byte, GLOBAL_REQUEST, :string, type.to_s, :bool, !callback.nil?, *extra)
  send_message(msg)
  pending_requests << callback if callback
  self
end

#send_message(message) ⇒ Object

Enqueues a message to be sent to the server as soon as the socket is available for writing. Most programs will never need to call this, but if you are implementing an extension to the SSH protocol, or if you need to send a packet that Net::SSH does not directly support, you can use this to send it.

ssh.send_message(Buffer.from(:byte, REQUEST_SUCCESS).to_s)

377
378
379
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 377

def send_message(message)
  transport.enqueue_message(message)
end

#shutdown!Object

Performs a “hard” shutdown of the connection. In general, this should never be done, but it might be necessary (in a rescue clause, for instance, when the connection needs to close but you don't know the status of the underlying protocol's state).


127
128
129
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 127

def shutdown!
  transport.shutdown!
end

#stop_listening_to(io) ⇒ Object

Removes the given io object from the listeners collection, so that the event loop will no longer monitor it.


421
422
423
# File 'lib/net/ssh/connection/session.rb', line 421

def stop_listening_to(io)
  listeners.delete(io)
end