Class: Dir

Inherits:
Object show all
Includes:
Enumerable
Defined in:
dir.c

Overview

Objects of class Dir are directory streams representing directories in the underlying file system. They provide a variety of ways to list directories and their contents. See also File.

The directory used in these examples contains the two regular files (config.h and main.rb), the parent directory (..), and the directory itself (.).

Class Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Methods included from Enumerable

#all?, #any?, #chain, #chunk, #chunk_while, #collect, #collect_concat, #count, #cycle, #detect, #drop, #drop_while, #each_cons, #each_entry, #each_slice, #each_with_index, #each_with_object, #entries, #filter, #filter_map, #find, #find_all, #find_index, #first, #flat_map, #grep, #grep_v, #group_by, #include?, #inject, #lazy, #map, #max, #max_by, #member?, #min, #min_by, #minmax, #minmax_by, #none?, #one?, #partition, #reduce, #reject, #reverse_each, #select, #slice_after, #slice_before, #slice_when, #sort, #sort_by, #sum, #take, #take_while, #tally, #to_a, #to_h, #uniq, #zip

Class Method Details

.chdir([ string]) ⇒ 0 .chdir([ string]) {|path| ... } ⇒ Object

Changes the current working directory of the process to the given string. When called without an argument, changes the directory to the value of the environment variable HOME, or LOGDIR. SystemCallError (probably Errno::ENOENT) if the target directory does not exist.

If a block is given, it is passed the name of the new current directory, and the block is executed with that as the current directory. The original working directory is restored when the block exits. The return value of chdir is the value of the block. chdir blocks can be nested, but in a multi-threaded program an error will be raised if a thread attempts to open a chdir block while another thread has one open or a call to chdir without a block occurs inside a block passed to chdir (even in the same thread).

Dir.chdir("/var/spool/mail")
puts Dir.pwd
Dir.chdir("/tmp") do
  puts Dir.pwd
  Dir.chdir("/usr") do
    puts Dir.pwd
  end
  puts Dir.pwd
end
puts Dir.pwd

produces:

/var/spool/mail
/tmp
/usr
/tmp
/var/spool/mail

Overloads:

  • .chdir([ string]) ⇒ 0

    Returns:

    • (0)
  • .chdir([ string]) {|path| ... } ⇒ Object

    Yields:

    Returns:


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# File 'dir.c', line 1049

static VALUE
dir_s_chdir(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE path = Qnil;

    if (rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 1) == 1) {
        path = rb_str_encode_ospath(rb_get_path(argv[0]));
    }
    else {
	const char *dist = getenv("HOME");
	if (!dist) {
	    dist = getenv("LOGDIR");
	    if (!dist) rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "HOME/LOGDIR not set");
	}
	path = rb_str_new2(dist);
    }

    if (chdir_blocking > 0) {
	if (rb_thread_current() != chdir_thread)
            rb_raise(rb_eRuntimeError, "conflicting chdir during another chdir block");
        if (!rb_block_given_p())
            rb_warn("conflicting chdir during another chdir block");
    }

    if (rb_block_given_p()) {
	struct chdir_data args;

	args.old_path = rb_str_encode_ospath(rb_dir_getwd());
	args.new_path = path;
	args.done = FALSE;
	return rb_ensure(chdir_yield, (VALUE)&args, chdir_restore, (VALUE)&args);
    }
    else {
	char *p = RSTRING_PTR(path);
	int r = (int)(VALUE)rb_thread_call_without_gvl(nogvl_chdir, p,
							RUBY_UBF_IO, 0);
	if (r < 0)
	    rb_sys_fail_path(path);
    }

    return INT2FIX(0);
}

.children(dirname) ⇒ Array .children(dirname, encoding: enc) ⇒ Array

Returns an array containing all of the filenames except for “.” and “..” in the given directory. Will raise a SystemCallError if the named directory doesn't exist.

The optional encoding keyword argument specifies the encoding of the directory. If not specified, the filesystem encoding is used.

Dir.children("testdir")   #=> ["config.h", "main.rb"]

Overloads:

  • .children(dirname) ⇒ Array

    Returns:

  • .children(dirname, encoding: enc) ⇒ Array

    Returns:


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# File 'dir.c', line 3142

static VALUE
dir_s_children(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
    VALUE dir;

    dir = dir_open_dir(argc, argv);
    return rb_ensure(dir_collect_children, dir, dir_close, dir);
}

.chroot(string) ⇒ 0

Changes this process's idea of the file system root. Only a privileged process may make this call. Not available on all platforms. On Unix systems, see chroot(2) for more information.

Returns:

  • (0)

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# File 'dir.c', line 1185

static VALUE
dir_s_chroot(VALUE dir, VALUE path)
{
    path = check_dirname(path);
    if (chroot(RSTRING_PTR(path)) == -1)
	rb_sys_fail_path(path);

    return INT2FIX(0);
}

.delete(string) ⇒ 0 .rmdir(string) ⇒ 0 .unlink(string) ⇒ 0

Deletes the named directory. Raises a subclass of SystemCallError if the directory isn't empty.

Overloads:

  • .delete(string) ⇒ 0

    Returns:

    • (0)
  • .rmdir(string) ⇒ 0

    Returns:

    • (0)
  • .unlink(string) ⇒ 0

    Returns:

    • (0)

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# File 'dir.c', line 1265

static VALUE
dir_s_rmdir(VALUE obj, VALUE dir)
{
    const char *p;
    int r;

    dir = check_dirname(dir);
    p = RSTRING_PTR(dir);
    r = (int)(VALUE)rb_thread_call_without_gvl(nogvl_rmdir, (void *)p, RUBY_UBF_IO, 0);
    if (r < 0)
	rb_sys_fail_path(dir);

    return INT2FIX(0);
}

.each_child(dirname) {|filename| ... } ⇒ nil .each_child(dirname, encoding: enc) {|filename| ... } ⇒ nil .each_child(dirname) ⇒ Object .each_child(dirname, encoding: enc) ⇒ Object

Calls the block once for each entry except for “.” and “..” in the named directory, passing the filename of each entry as a parameter to the block.

If no block is given, an enumerator is returned instead.

Dir.each_child("testdir") {|x| puts "Got #{x}" }

produces:

Got config.h
Got main.rb

Overloads:

  • .each_child(dirname) {|filename| ... } ⇒ nil

    Yields:

    • (filename)

    Returns:

    • (nil)
  • .each_child(dirname, encoding: enc) {|filename| ... } ⇒ nil

    Yields:

    • (filename)

    Returns:

    • (nil)

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# File 'dir.c', line 3070

static VALUE
dir_s_each_child(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
    VALUE dir;

    RETURN_ENUMERATOR(io, argc, argv);
    dir = dir_open_dir(argc, argv);
    rb_ensure(dir_each_child, dir, dir_close, dir);
    return Qnil;
}

.empty?(path_name) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if the named file is an empty directory, false if it is not a directory or non-empty.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'dir.c', line 3396

static VALUE
rb_dir_s_empty_p(VALUE obj, VALUE dirname)
{
    VALUE result, orig;
    const char *path;
    enum {false_on_notdir = 1};

    FilePathValue(dirname);
    orig = rb_str_dup_frozen(dirname);
    dirname = rb_str_encode_ospath(dirname);
    dirname = rb_str_dup_frozen(dirname);
    path = RSTRING_PTR(dirname);

#if defined HAVE_GETATTRLIST && defined ATTR_DIR_ENTRYCOUNT
    {
	u_int32_t attrbuf[SIZEUP32(fsobj_tag_t)];
	struct attrlist al = {ATTR_BIT_MAP_COUNT, 0, ATTR_CMN_OBJTAG,};
	if (getattrlist(path, &al, attrbuf, sizeof(attrbuf), 0) != 0)
	    rb_sys_fail_path(orig);
	if (*(const fsobj_tag_t *)(attrbuf+1) == VT_HFS) {
	    al.commonattr = 0;
	    al.dirattr = ATTR_DIR_ENTRYCOUNT;
	    if (getattrlist(path, &al, attrbuf, sizeof(attrbuf), 0) == 0) {
		if (attrbuf[0] >= 2 * sizeof(u_int32_t))
		    return attrbuf[1] ? Qfalse : Qtrue;
		if (false_on_notdir) return Qfalse;
	    }
	    rb_sys_fail_path(orig);
	}
    }
#endif

    result = (VALUE)rb_thread_call_without_gvl(nogvl_dir_empty_p, (void *)path,
					    RUBY_UBF_IO, 0);
    if (result == Qundef) {
	rb_sys_fail_path(orig);
    }
    return result;
}

.entries(dirname) ⇒ Array .entries(dirname, encoding: enc) ⇒ Array

Returns an array containing all of the filenames in the given directory. Will raise a SystemCallError if the named directory doesn't exist.

The optional encoding keyword argument specifies the encoding of the directory. If not specified, the filesystem encoding is used.

Dir.entries("testdir")   #=> [".", "..", "config.h", "main.rb"]

Overloads:

  • .entries(dirname) ⇒ Array

    Returns:

  • .entries(dirname, encoding: enc) ⇒ Array

    Returns:


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# File 'dir.c', line 3034

static VALUE
dir_entries(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
    VALUE dir;

    dir = dir_open_dir(argc, argv);
    return rb_ensure(dir_collect, dir, dir_close, dir);
}

.exist?(file_name) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if the named file is a directory, false otherwise.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'dir.c', line 3343

VALUE
rb_file_directory_p(void)
{
}

.exists?(fname) ⇒ Boolean

:nodoc:

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'dir.c', line 3350

static VALUE
rb_dir_exists_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
    rb_warn_deprecated("Dir.exists?", "Dir.exist?");
    return rb_file_directory_p(obj, fname);
}

.foreach(dirname) {|filename| ... } ⇒ nil .foreach(dirname, encoding: enc) {|filename| ... } ⇒ nil .foreach(dirname) ⇒ Object .foreach(dirname, encoding: enc) ⇒ Object

Calls the block once for each entry in the named directory, passing the filename of each entry as a parameter to the block.

If no block is given, an enumerator is returned instead.

Dir.foreach("testdir") {|x| puts "Got #{x}" }

produces:

Got .
Got ..
Got config.h
Got main.rb

Overloads:

  • .foreach(dirname) {|filename| ... } ⇒ nil

    Yields:

    • (filename)

    Returns:

    • (nil)
  • .foreach(dirname, encoding: enc) {|filename| ... } ⇒ nil

    Yields:

    • (filename)

    Returns:

    • (nil)

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# File 'dir.c', line 3000

static VALUE
dir_foreach(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
    VALUE dir;

    RETURN_ENUMERATOR(io, argc, argv);
    dir = dir_open_dir(argc, argv);
    rb_ensure(dir_each, dir, dir_close, dir);
    return Qnil;
}

.getwdString .pwdString

Returns the path to the current working directory of this process as a string.

Dir.chdir("/tmp")   #=> 0
Dir.getwd           #=> "/tmp"
Dir.pwd             #=> "/tmp"

Overloads:


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# File 'dir.c', line 1149

static VALUE
dir_s_getwd(VALUE dir)
{
    return rb_dir_getwd();
}

.homeObject .home("root") ⇒ Object

Returns the home directory of the current user or the named user if given.


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# File 'dir.c', line 3314

static VALUE
dir_s_home(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE user;
    const char *u = 0;

    rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 1);
    user = (argc > 0) ? argv[0] : Qnil;
    if (!NIL_P(user)) {
	SafeStringValue(user);
	rb_must_asciicompat(user);
	u = StringValueCStr(user);
	if (*u) {
	    return rb_home_dir_of(user, rb_str_new(0, 0));
	}
    }
    return rb_default_home_dir(rb_str_new(0, 0));

}

.mkdir(string[, integer]) ⇒ 0

Makes a new directory named by string, with permissions specified by the optional parameter anInteger. The permissions may be modified by the value of File::umask, and are ignored on NT. Raises a SystemCallError if the directory cannot be created. See also the discussion of permissions in the class documentation for File.

Dir.mkdir(File.join(Dir.home, ".foo"), 0700) #=> 0

Returns:

  • (0)

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# File 'dir.c', line 1225

static VALUE
dir_s_mkdir(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    struct mkdir_arg m;
    VALUE path, vmode;
    int r;

    if (rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &path, &vmode) == 2) {
	m.mode = NUM2MODET(vmode);
    }
    else {
	m.mode = 0777;
    }

    path = check_dirname(path);
    m.path = RSTRING_PTR(path);
    r = (int)(VALUE)rb_thread_call_without_gvl(nogvl_mkdir, &m, RUBY_UBF_IO, 0);
    if (r < 0)
	rb_sys_fail_path(path);

    return INT2FIX(0);
}

.getwdString .pwdString

Returns the path to the current working directory of this process as a string.

Dir.chdir("/tmp")   #=> 0
Dir.getwd           #=> "/tmp"
Dir.pwd             #=> "/tmp"

Overloads:


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# File 'dir.c', line 1149

static VALUE
dir_s_getwd(VALUE dir)
{
    return rb_dir_getwd();
}

.delete(string) ⇒ 0 .rmdir(string) ⇒ 0 .unlink(string) ⇒ 0

Deletes the named directory. Raises a subclass of SystemCallError if the directory isn't empty.

Overloads:

  • .delete(string) ⇒ 0

    Returns:

    • (0)
  • .rmdir(string) ⇒ 0

    Returns:

    • (0)
  • .unlink(string) ⇒ 0

    Returns:

    • (0)

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# File 'dir.c', line 1265

static VALUE
dir_s_rmdir(VALUE obj, VALUE dir)
{
    const char *p;
    int r;

    dir = check_dirname(dir);
    p = RSTRING_PTR(dir);
    r = (int)(VALUE)rb_thread_call_without_gvl(nogvl_rmdir, (void *)p, RUBY_UBF_IO, 0);
    if (r < 0)
	rb_sys_fail_path(dir);

    return INT2FIX(0);
}

Deletes the named directory. Raises a subclass of SystemCallError if the directory isn't empty.

Overloads:

  • .delete(string) ⇒ 0

    Returns:

    • (0)
  • .rmdir(string) ⇒ 0

    Returns:

    • (0)
  • .unlink(string) ⇒ 0

    Returns:

    • (0)

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# File 'dir.c', line 1265

static VALUE
dir_s_rmdir(VALUE obj, VALUE dir)
{
    const char *p;
    int r;

    dir = check_dirname(dir);
    p = RSTRING_PTR(dir);
    r = (int)(VALUE)rb_thread_call_without_gvl(nogvl_rmdir, (void *)p, RUBY_UBF_IO, 0);
    if (r < 0)
	rb_sys_fail_path(dir);

    return INT2FIX(0);
}

Instance Method Details

#childrenArray

Returns an array containing all of the filenames except for “.” and “..” in this directory.

d = Dir.new("testdir")
d.children   #=> ["config.h", "main.rb"]

Returns:


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# File 'dir.c', line 3119

static VALUE
dir_collect_children(VALUE dir)
{
    VALUE ary = rb_ary_new();
    dir_each_entry(dir, rb_ary_push, ary, TRUE);
    return ary;
}

#closenil

Closes the directory stream. Calling this method on closed Dir object is ignored since Ruby 2.3.

d = Dir.new("testdir")
d.close   #=> nil

Returns:

  • (nil)

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# File 'dir.c', line 948

static VALUE
dir_close(VALUE dir)
{
    struct dir_data *dirp;

    dirp = dir_get(dir);
    if (!dirp->dir) return Qnil;
    closedir(dirp->dir);
    dirp->dir = NULL;

    return Qnil;
}

#each {|filename| ... } ⇒ Dir #eachObject

Calls the block once for each entry in this directory, passing the filename of each entry as a parameter to the block.

If no block is given, an enumerator is returned instead.

d = Dir.new("testdir")
d.each  {|x| puts "Got #{x}" }

produces:

Got .
Got ..
Got config.h
Got main.rb

Overloads:

  • #each {|filename| ... } ⇒ Dir

    Yields:

    • (filename)

    Returns:


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# File 'dir.c', line 798

static VALUE
dir_each(VALUE dir)
{
    RETURN_ENUMERATOR(dir, 0, 0);
    return dir_each_entry(dir, dir_yield, Qnil, FALSE);
}

#each_child {|filename| ... } ⇒ Dir #each_childObject

Calls the block once for each entry except for “.” and “..” in this directory, passing the filename of each entry as a parameter to the block.

If no block is given, an enumerator is returned instead.

d = Dir.new("testdir")
d.each_child  {|x| puts "Got #{x}" }

produces:

Got config.h
Got main.rb

Overloads:

  • #each_child {|filename| ... } ⇒ Dir

    Yields:

    • (filename)

    Returns:


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# File 'dir.c', line 3101

static VALUE
dir_each_child_m(VALUE dir)
{
    RETURN_ENUMERATOR(dir, 0, 0);
    return dir_each_entry(dir, dir_yield, Qnil, TRUE);
}

#filenoInteger

Returns the file descriptor used in dir.

d = Dir.new("..")
d.fileno   #=> 8

This method uses dirfd() function defined by POSIX 2008. NotImplementedError is raised on other platforms, such as Windows, which doesn't provide the function.

Returns:


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# File 'dir.c', line 663

static VALUE
dir_fileno(VALUE dir)
{
    struct dir_data *dirp;
    int fd;

    GetDIR(dir, dirp);
    fd = dirfd(dirp->dir);
    if (fd == -1)
	rb_sys_fail("dirfd");
    return INT2NUM(fd);
}

#inspectString

Return a string describing this Dir object.

Returns:


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# File 'dir.c', line 618

static VALUE
dir_inspect(VALUE dir)
{
    struct dir_data *dirp;

    TypedData_Get_Struct(dir, struct dir_data, &dir_data_type, dirp);
    if (!NIL_P(dirp->path)) {
	VALUE str = rb_str_new_cstr("#<");
	rb_str_append(str, rb_class_name(CLASS_OF(dir)));
	rb_str_cat2(str, ":");
	rb_str_append(str, dirp->path);
	rb_str_cat2(str, ">");
	return str;
    }
    return rb_funcallv(dir, idTo_s, 0, 0);
}

#pathString? #to_pathString?

Returns the path parameter passed to dir's constructor.

d = Dir.new("..")
d.path   #=> ".."

Overloads:


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# File 'dir.c', line 689

static VALUE
dir_path(VALUE dir)
{
    struct dir_data *dirp;

    TypedData_Get_Struct(dir, struct dir_data, &dir_data_type, dirp);
    if (NIL_P(dirp->path)) return Qnil;
    return rb_str_dup(dirp->path);
}

#posInteger #tellInteger

Returns the current position in dir. See also Dir#seek.

d = Dir.new("testdir")
d.tell   #=> 0
d.read   #=> "."
d.tell   #=> 12

Overloads:


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# File 'dir.c', line 850

static VALUE
dir_tell(VALUE dir)
{
    struct dir_data *dirp;
    long pos;

    GetDIR(dir, dirp);
    pos = telldir(dirp->dir);
    return rb_int2inum(pos);
}

#pos=(integer) ⇒ Integer

Synonym for Dir#seek, but returns the position parameter.

d = Dir.new("testdir")   #=> #<Dir:0x401b3c40>
d.read                   #=> "."
i = d.pos                #=> 12
d.read                   #=> ".."
d.pos = i                #=> 12
d.read                   #=> ".."

Returns:


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# File 'dir.c', line 907

static VALUE
dir_set_pos(VALUE dir, VALUE pos)
{
    dir_seek(dir, pos);
    return pos;
}

#readString?

Reads the next entry from dir and returns it as a string. Returns nil at the end of the stream.

d = Dir.new("testdir")
d.read   #=> "."
d.read   #=> ".."
d.read   #=> "config.h"

Returns:


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# File 'dir.c', line 752

static VALUE
dir_read(VALUE dir)
{
    struct dir_data *dirp;
    struct dirent *dp;

    GetDIR(dir, dirp);
    errno = 0;
    if ((dp = READDIR(dirp->dir, dirp->enc)) != NULL) {
	return rb_external_str_new_with_enc(dp->d_name, NAMLEN(dp), dirp->enc);
    }
    else {
	int e = errno;
	if (e != 0) rb_syserr_fail(e, 0);
	return Qnil;		/* end of stream */
    }
}

#rewindDir

Repositions dir to the first entry.

d = Dir.new("testdir")
d.read     #=> "."
d.rewind   #=> #<Dir:0x401b3fb0>
d.read     #=> "."

Returns:


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# File 'dir.c', line 928

static VALUE
dir_rewind(VALUE dir)
{
    struct dir_data *dirp;

    GetDIR(dir, dirp);
    rewinddir(dirp->dir);
    return dir;
}

#seek(integer) ⇒ Dir

Seeks to a particular location in dir. integer must be a value returned by Dir#tell.

d = Dir.new("testdir")   #=> #<Dir:0x401b3c40>
d.read                   #=> "."
i = d.tell               #=> 12
d.read                   #=> ".."
d.seek(i)                #=> #<Dir:0x401b3c40>
d.read                   #=> ".."

Returns:


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# File 'dir.c', line 879

static VALUE
dir_seek(VALUE dir, VALUE pos)
{
    struct dir_data *dirp;
    long p = NUM2LONG(pos);

    GetDIR(dir, dirp);
    seekdir(dirp->dir, p);
    return dir;
}

#posInteger #tellInteger

Returns the current position in dir. See also Dir#seek.

d = Dir.new("testdir")
d.tell   #=> 0
d.read   #=> "."
d.tell   #=> 12

Overloads:


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# File 'dir.c', line 850

static VALUE
dir_tell(VALUE dir)
{
    struct dir_data *dirp;
    long pos;

    GetDIR(dir, dirp);
    pos = telldir(dirp->dir);
    return rb_int2inum(pos);
}

#pathString? #to_pathString?

Returns the path parameter passed to dir's constructor.

d = Dir.new("..")
d.path   #=> ".."

Overloads:


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# File 'dir.c', line 689

static VALUE
dir_path(VALUE dir)
{
    struct dir_data *dirp;

    TypedData_Get_Struct(dir, struct dir_data, &dir_data_type, dirp);
    if (NIL_P(dirp->path)) return Qnil;
    return rb_str_dup(dirp->path);
}