Class: MatchData

Inherits:
Object show all
Defined in:
re.c,
re.c

Overview

MatchData encapsulates the result of matching a Regexp against string. It is returned by Regexp#match and String#match, and also stored in a global variable returned by Regexp.last_match.

Usage:

url = 'https://docs.ruby-lang.org/en/2.5.0/MatchData.html'
m = url.match(/(\d\.?)+/)   # => #<MatchData "2.5.0" 1:"0">
m.string                    # => "https://docs.ruby-lang.org/en/2.5.0/MatchData.html"
m.regexp                    # => /(\d\.?)+/
# entire matched substring:
m[0]                        # => "2.5.0"

# Working with unnamed captures
m = url.match(%r{([^/]+)/([^/]+)\.html$})
m.captures                  # => ["2.5.0", "MatchData"]
m[1]                        # => "2.5.0"
m.values_at(1, 2)           # => ["2.5.0", "MatchData"]

# Working with named captures
m = url.match(%r{(?<version>[^/]+)/(?<module>[^/]+)\.html$})
m.captures                  # => ["2.5.0", "MatchData"]
m.named_captures            # => {"version"=>"2.5.0", "module"=>"MatchData"}
m[:version]                 # => "2.5.0"
m.values_at(:version, :module)
                            # => ["2.5.0", "MatchData"]
# Numerical indexes are working, too
m[1]                        # => "2.5.0"
m.values_at(1, 2)           # => ["2.5.0", "MatchData"]

Global variables equivalence

Parts of last MatchData (returned by Regexp.last_match) are also aliased as global variables:

  • $~ is Regexp.last_match;

  • $& is Regexp.last_match[ 0 ];

  • $1, $2, and so on are Regexp.last_match[ i ] (captures by number);

  • $` is Regexp.last_match.pre_match;

  • $' is Regexp.last_match.post_match;

  • $+ is Regexp.last_match[ -1 ] (the last capture).

See also “Special global variables” section in Regexp documentation.

Instance Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Details

#==(mtch2) ⇒ Boolean #eql?(mtch2) ⇒ Boolean

Equality—Two matchdata are equal if their target strings,

patterns, and matched positions are identical.

Overloads:

  • #==(mtch2) ⇒ Boolean

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)
  • #eql?(mtch2) ⇒ Boolean

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)


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# File 're.c', line 3097

static VALUE
match_equal(VALUE match1, VALUE match2)
{
    const struct re_registers *regs1, *regs2;

    if (match1 == match2) return Qtrue;
    if (!RB_TYPE_P(match2, T_MATCH)) return Qfalse;
    if (!RMATCH(match1)->regexp || !RMATCH(match2)->regexp) return Qfalse;
    if (!rb_str_equal(RMATCH(match1)->str, RMATCH(match2)->str)) return Qfalse;
    if (!rb_reg_equal(match_regexp(match1), match_regexp(match2))) return Qfalse;
    regs1 = RMATCH_REGS(match1);
    regs2 = RMATCH_REGS(match2);
    if (regs1->num_regs != regs2->num_regs) return Qfalse;
    if (memcmp(regs1->beg, regs2->beg, regs1->num_regs * sizeof(*regs1->beg))) return Qfalse;
    if (memcmp(regs1->end, regs2->end, regs1->num_regs * sizeof(*regs1->end))) return Qfalse;
    return Qtrue;
}

#[](i) ⇒ String? #[](start, length) ⇒ Array #[](range) ⇒ Array #[](name) ⇒ String?

Match Reference – MatchData acts as an array, and may be accessed using the normal array indexing techniques. mtch[0] is equivalent to the special variable $&, and returns the entire matched string. mtch[1], mtch[2], and so on return the values of the matched backreferences (portions of the pattern between parentheses).

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138.")
m          #=> #<MatchData "HX1138" 1:"H" 2:"X" 3:"113" 4:"8">
m[0]       #=> "HX1138"
m[1, 2]    #=> ["H", "X"]
m[1..3]    #=> ["H", "X", "113"]
m[-3, 2]   #=> ["X", "113"]

m = /(?<foo>a+)b/.match("ccaaab")
m          #=> #<MatchData "aaab" foo:"aaa">
m["foo"]   #=> "aaa"
m[:foo]    #=> "aaa"

Overloads:



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# File 're.c', line 2026

static VALUE
match_aref(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE match)
{
    VALUE idx, length;

    match_check(match);
    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &idx, &length);

    if (NIL_P(length)) {
  if (FIXNUM_P(idx)) {
      return rb_reg_nth_match(FIX2INT(idx), match);
  }
  else {
      int num = namev_to_backref_number(RMATCH_REGS(match), RMATCH(match)->regexp, idx);
      if (num >= 0) {
    return rb_reg_nth_match(num, match);
      }
      else {
    return match_ary_aref(match, idx, Qnil);
      }
  }
    }
    else {
  long beg = NUM2LONG(idx);
  long len = NUM2LONG(length);
  long num_regs = RMATCH_REGS(match)->num_regs;
  if (len < 0) {
      return Qnil;
  }
  if (beg < 0) {
      beg += num_regs;
      if (beg < 0) return Qnil;
  }
  else if (beg > num_regs) {
      return Qnil;
  }
  else if (beg+len > num_regs) {
      len = num_regs - beg;
  }
  return match_ary_subseq(match, beg, len, Qnil);
    }
}

#begin(n) ⇒ Integer

Returns the offset of the start of the nth element of the match array in the string. n can be a string or symbol to reference a named capture.

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138.")
m.begin(0)       #=> 1
m.begin(2)       #=> 2

m = /(?<foo>.)(.)(?<bar>.)/.match("hoge")
p m.begin(:foo)  #=> 0
p m.begin(:bar)  #=> 2

Returns:



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# File 're.c', line 1242

static VALUE
match_begin(VALUE match, VALUE n)
{
    int i = match_backref_number(match, n);
    struct re_registers *regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);

    match_check(match);
    if (i < 0 || regs->num_regs <= i)
  rb_raise(rb_eIndexError, "index %d out of matches", i);

    if (BEG(i) < 0)
  return Qnil;

    update_char_offset(match);
    return INT2FIX(RMATCH(match)->rmatch->char_offset[i].beg);
}

#capturesArray

Returns the array of captures; equivalent to mtch.to_a[1..-1].

f1,f2,f3,f4 = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138.").captures
f1    #=> "H"
f2    #=> "X"
f3    #=> "113"
f4    #=> "8"

Returns:



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# File 're.c', line 1917

static VALUE
match_captures(VALUE match)
{
    return match_array(match, 1);
}

#end(n) ⇒ Integer

Returns the offset of the character immediately following the end of the nth element of the match array in the string. n can be a string or symbol to reference a named capture.

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138.")
m.end(0)         #=> 7
m.end(2)         #=> 3

m = /(?<foo>.)(.)(?<bar>.)/.match("hoge")
p m.end(:foo)    #=> 1
p m.end(:bar)    #=> 3

Returns:



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# File 're.c', line 1277

static VALUE
match_end(VALUE match, VALUE n)
{
    int i = match_backref_number(match, n);
    struct re_registers *regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);

    match_check(match);
    if (i < 0 || regs->num_regs <= i)
  rb_raise(rb_eIndexError, "index %d out of matches", i);

    if (BEG(i) < 0)
  return Qnil;

    update_char_offset(match);
    return INT2FIX(RMATCH(match)->rmatch->char_offset[i].end);
}

#==(mtch2) ⇒ Boolean #eql?(mtch2) ⇒ Boolean

Equality—Two matchdata are equal if their target strings,

patterns, and matched positions are identical.

Overloads:

  • #==(mtch2) ⇒ Boolean

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)
  • #eql?(mtch2) ⇒ Boolean

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)


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# File 're.c', line 3097

static VALUE
match_equal(VALUE match1, VALUE match2)
{
    const struct re_registers *regs1, *regs2;

    if (match1 == match2) return Qtrue;
    if (!RB_TYPE_P(match2, T_MATCH)) return Qfalse;
    if (!RMATCH(match1)->regexp || !RMATCH(match2)->regexp) return Qfalse;
    if (!rb_str_equal(RMATCH(match1)->str, RMATCH(match2)->str)) return Qfalse;
    if (!rb_reg_equal(match_regexp(match1), match_regexp(match2))) return Qfalse;
    regs1 = RMATCH_REGS(match1);
    regs2 = RMATCH_REGS(match2);
    if (regs1->num_regs != regs2->num_regs) return Qfalse;
    if (memcmp(regs1->beg, regs2->beg, regs1->num_regs * sizeof(*regs1->beg))) return Qfalse;
    if (memcmp(regs1->end, regs2->end, regs1->num_regs * sizeof(*regs1->end))) return Qfalse;
    return Qtrue;
}

#hashInteger

Produce a hash based on the target string, regexp and matched positions of this matchdata.

See also Object#hash.

Returns:



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# File 're.c', line 3071

static VALUE
match_hash(VALUE match)
{
    const struct re_registers *regs;
    st_index_t hashval;

    match_check(match);
    hashval = rb_hash_start(rb_str_hash(RMATCH(match)->str));
    hashval = rb_hash_uint(hashval, reg_hash(match_regexp(match)));
    regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);
    hashval = rb_hash_uint(hashval, regs->num_regs);
    hashval = rb_hash_uint(hashval, rb_memhash(regs->beg, regs->num_regs * sizeof(*regs->beg)));
    hashval = rb_hash_uint(hashval, rb_memhash(regs->end, regs->num_regs * sizeof(*regs->end)));
    hashval = rb_hash_end(hashval);
    return ST2FIX(hashval);
}

#initialize_copy(orig) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:



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# File 're.c', line 1059

static VALUE
match_init_copy(VALUE obj, VALUE orig)
{
    struct rmatch *rm;

    if (!OBJ_INIT_COPY(obj, orig)) return obj;

    RMATCH(obj)->str = RMATCH(orig)->str;
    RMATCH(obj)->regexp = RMATCH(orig)->regexp;

    rm = RMATCH(obj)->rmatch;
    if (rb_reg_region_copy(&rm->regs, RMATCH_REGS(orig)))
  rb_memerror();

    if (RMATCH(orig)->rmatch->char_offset_num_allocated) {
        if (rm->char_offset_num_allocated < rm->regs.num_regs) {
            REALLOC_N(rm->char_offset, struct rmatch_offset, rm->regs.num_regs);
            rm->char_offset_num_allocated = rm->regs.num_regs;
        }
        MEMCPY(rm->char_offset, RMATCH(orig)->rmatch->char_offset,
               struct rmatch_offset, rm->regs.num_regs);
  RB_GC_GUARD(orig);
    }

    return obj;
}

#inspectString

Returns a printable version of mtch.

puts /.$/.match("foo").inspect
#=> #<MatchData "o">

puts /(.)(.)(.)/.match("foo").inspect
#=> #<MatchData "foo" 1:"f" 2:"o" 3:"o">

puts /(.)(.)?(.)/.match("fo").inspect
#=> #<MatchData "fo" 1:"f" 2:nil 3:"o">

puts /(?<foo>.)(?<bar>.)(?<baz>.)/.match("hoge").inspect
#=> #<MatchData "hog" foo:"h" bar:"o" baz:"g">

Returns:



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# File 're.c', line 2258

static VALUE
match_inspect(VALUE match)
{
    VALUE cname = rb_class_path(rb_obj_class(match));
    VALUE str;
    int i;
    struct re_registers *regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);
    int num_regs = regs->num_regs;
    struct backref_name_tag *names;
    VALUE regexp = RMATCH(match)->regexp;

    if (regexp == 0) {
        return rb_sprintf("#<%"PRIsVALUE":%p>", cname, (void*)match);
    }
    else if (NIL_P(regexp)) {
        return rb_sprintf("#<%"PRIsVALUE": %"PRIsVALUE">",
        cname, rb_reg_nth_match(0, match));
    }

    names = ALLOCA_N(struct backref_name_tag, num_regs);
    MEMZERO(names, struct backref_name_tag, num_regs);

    onig_foreach_name(RREGEXP_PTR(regexp),
            match_inspect_name_iter, names);

    str = rb_str_buf_new2("#<");
    rb_str_append(str, cname);

    for (i = 0; i < num_regs; i++) {
        VALUE v;
        rb_str_buf_cat2(str, " ");
        if (0 < i) {
            if (names[i].name)
                rb_str_buf_cat(str, (const char *)names[i].name, names[i].len);
            else {
                rb_str_catf(str, "%d", i);
            }
            rb_str_buf_cat2(str, ":");
        }
        v = rb_reg_nth_match(i, match);
        if (v == Qnil)
            rb_str_buf_cat2(str, "nil");
        else
            rb_str_buf_append(str, rb_str_inspect(v));
    }
    rb_str_buf_cat2(str, ">");

    return str;
}

#lengthInteger #sizeInteger

Returns the number of elements in the match array.

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138.")
m.length   #=> 5
m.size     #=> 5

Overloads:



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# File 're.c', line 1146

static VALUE
match_size(VALUE match)
{
    match_check(match);
    return INT2FIX(RMATCH_REGS(match)->num_regs);
}

#named_capturesHash

Returns a Hash using named capture.

A key of the hash is a name of the named captures. A value of the hash is a string of last successful capture of corresponding group.

m = /(?<a>.)(?<b>.)/.match("01")
m.named_captures #=> {"a" => "0", "b" => "1"}

m = /(?<a>.)(?<b>.)?/.match("0")
m.named_captures #=> {"a" => "0", "b" => nil}

m = /(?<a>.)(?<a>.)/.match("01")
m.named_captures #=> {"a" => "1"}

m = /(?<a>x)|(?<a>y)/.match("x")
m.named_captures #=> {"a" => "x"}

Returns:



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# File 're.c', line 2184

static VALUE
match_named_captures(VALUE match)
{
    VALUE hash;
    struct MEMO *memo;

    match_check(match);
    if (NIL_P(RMATCH(match)->regexp))
  return rb_hash_new();

    hash = rb_hash_new();
    memo = MEMO_NEW(hash, match, 0);

    onig_foreach_name(RREGEXP(RMATCH(match)->regexp)->ptr, match_named_captures_iter, (void*)memo);

    return hash;
}

#namesArray

Returns a list of names of captures as an array of strings. It is same as mtch.regexp.names.

/(?<foo>.)(?<bar>.)(?<baz>.)/.match("hoge").names
#=> ["foo", "bar", "baz"]

m = /(?<x>.)(?<y>.)?/.match("a") #=> #<MatchData "a" x:"a" y:nil>
m.names                          #=> ["x", "y"]

Returns:



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# File 're.c', line 1125

static VALUE
match_names(VALUE match)
{
    match_check(match);
    if (NIL_P(RMATCH(match)->regexp))
  return rb_ary_new_capa(0);
    return rb_reg_names(RMATCH(match)->regexp);
}

#offset(n) ⇒ Array

Returns a two-element array containing the beginning and ending offsets of the nth match. n can be a string or symbol to reference a named capture.

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138.")
m.offset(0)      #=> [1, 7]
m.offset(4)      #=> [6, 7]

m = /(?<foo>.)(.)(?<bar>.)/.match("hoge")
p m.offset(:foo) #=> [0, 1]
p m.offset(:bar) #=> [2, 3]

Returns:



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# File 're.c', line 1206

static VALUE
match_offset(VALUE match, VALUE n)
{
    int i = match_backref_number(match, n);
    struct re_registers *regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);

    match_check(match);
    if (i < 0 || regs->num_regs <= i)
  rb_raise(rb_eIndexError, "index %d out of matches", i);

    if (BEG(i) < 0)
  return rb_assoc_new(Qnil, Qnil);

    update_char_offset(match);
    return rb_assoc_new(INT2FIX(RMATCH(match)->rmatch->char_offset[i].beg),
      INT2FIX(RMATCH(match)->rmatch->char_offset[i].end));
}

#post_matchString

Returns the portion of the original string after the current match. Equivalent to the special variable $'.

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138: The Movie")
m.post_match   #=> ": The Movie"

Returns:



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# File 're.c', line 1792

VALUE
rb_reg_match_post(VALUE match)
{
    VALUE str;
    long pos;
    struct re_registers *regs;

    if (NIL_P(match)) return Qnil;
    match_check(match);
    regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);
    if (BEG(0) == -1) return Qnil;
    str = RMATCH(match)->str;
    pos = END(0);
    str = rb_str_subseq(str, pos, RSTRING_LEN(str) - pos);
    return str;
}

#pre_matchString

Returns the portion of the original string before the current match. Equivalent to the special variable $`.

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138.")
m.pre_match   #=> "T"

Returns:



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# File 're.c', line 1766

VALUE
rb_reg_match_pre(VALUE match)
{
    VALUE str;
    struct re_registers *regs;

    if (NIL_P(match)) return Qnil;
    match_check(match);
    regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);
    if (BEG(0) == -1) return Qnil;
    str = rb_str_subseq(RMATCH(match)->str, 0, BEG(0));
    return str;
}

#regexpRegexp

Returns the regexp.

m = /a.*b/.match("abc")
m.regexp #=> /a.*b/

Returns:



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# File 're.c', line 1097

static VALUE
match_regexp(VALUE match)
{
    VALUE regexp;
    match_check(match);
    regexp = RMATCH(match)->regexp;
    if (NIL_P(regexp)) {
  VALUE str = rb_reg_nth_match(0, match);
  regexp = rb_reg_regcomp(rb_reg_quote(str));
  RMATCH(match)->regexp = regexp;
    }
    return regexp;
}

#lengthInteger #sizeInteger

Returns the number of elements in the match array.

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138.")
m.length   #=> 5
m.size     #=> 5

Overloads:



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# File 're.c', line 1146

static VALUE
match_size(VALUE match)
{
    match_check(match);
    return INT2FIX(RMATCH_REGS(match)->num_regs);
}

#stringString

Returns a frozen copy of the string passed in to match.

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138.")
m.string   #=> "THX1138."

Returns:



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# File 're.c', line 2212

static VALUE
match_string(VALUE match)
{
    match_check(match);
    return RMATCH(match)->str;  /* str is frozen */
}

#to_aArray

Returns the array of matches.

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138.")
m.to_a   #=> ["HX1138", "H", "X", "113", "8"]

Because to_a is called when expanding *variable, there’s a useful assignment shortcut for extracting matched fields. This is slightly slower than accessing the fields directly (as an intermediate array is generated).

all,f1,f2,f3 = * /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138.")
all   #=> "HX1138"
f1    #=> "H"
f2    #=> "X"
f3    #=> "113"

Returns:



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# File 're.c', line 1898

static VALUE
match_to_a(VALUE match)
{
    return match_array(match, 0);
}

#to_sString

Returns the entire matched string.

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138.")
m.to_s   #=> "HX1138"

Returns:



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# File 're.c', line 2123

static VALUE
match_to_s(VALUE match)
{
    VALUE str = rb_reg_last_match(match);

    match_check(match);
    if (NIL_P(str)) str = rb_str_new(0,0);
    return str;
}

#values_at(index, ...) ⇒ Array

Uses each index to access the matching values, returning an array of the corresponding matches.

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138: The Movie")
m.to_a               #=> ["HX1138", "H", "X", "113", "8"]
m.values_at(0, 2, -2)   #=> ["HX1138", "X", "113"]

m = /(?<a>\d+) *(?<op>[+\-*\/]) *(?<b>\d+)/.match("1 + 2")
m.to_a               #=> ["1 + 2", "1", "+", "2"]
m.values_at(:a, :b, :op) #=> ["1", "2", "+"]

Returns:



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# File 're.c', line 2086

static VALUE
match_values_at(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE match)
{
    VALUE result;
    int i;

    match_check(match);
    result = rb_ary_new2(argc);

    for (i=0; i<argc; i++) {
  if (FIXNUM_P(argv[i])) {
      rb_ary_push(result, rb_reg_nth_match(FIX2INT(argv[i]), match));
  }
  else {
      int num = namev_to_backref_number(RMATCH_REGS(match), RMATCH(match)->regexp, argv[i]);
      if (num >= 0) {
    rb_ary_push(result, rb_reg_nth_match(num, match));
      }
      else {
    match_ary_aref(match, argv[i], result);
      }
  }
    }
    return result;
}