Class: Ripper

Inherits:
Object
  • Object
show all
Defined in:
lib/ripper.rb,
lib/ripper/core.rb,
lib/ripper/sexp.rb,
lib/ripper/lexer.rb,
lib/ripper/filter.rb

Overview

Ripper is a Ruby script parser.

You can get information from the parser with event-based style. Information such as abstract syntax trees or simple lexical analysis of the Ruby program.

Usage

Ripper provides an easy interface for parsing your program into a symbolic expression tree (or S-expression).

Understanding the output of the parser may come as a challenge, it's recommended you use PP to format the output for legibility.

require 'ripper'
require 'pp'

pp Ripper.sexp('def hello(world) "Hello, #{world}!"; end')
  #=> [:program,
       [[:def,
         [:@ident, "hello", [1, 4]],
         [:paren,
          [:params, [[:@ident, "world", [1, 10]]], nil, nil, nil, nil, nil, nil]],
         [:bodystmt,
          [[:string_literal,
            [:string_content,
             [:@tstring_content, "Hello, ", [1, 18]],
             [:string_embexpr, [[:var_ref, [:@ident, "world", [1, 27]]]]],
             [:@tstring_content, "!", [1, 33]]]]],
          nil,
          nil,
          nil]]]]

You can see in the example above, the expression starts with :program.

From here, a method definition at :def, followed by the method's identifier :@ident. After the method's identifier comes the parentheses :paren and the method parameters under :params.

Next is the method body, starting at :bodystmt (stmt meaning statement), which contains the full definition of the method.

In our case, we're simply returning a String, so next we have the :string_literal expression.

Within our :string_literal you'll notice two @tstring_content, this is the literal part for Hello, and !. Between the two @tstring_content statements is a :string_embexpr, where embexpr is an embedded expression. Our expression consists of a local variable, or var_ref, with the identifier (@ident) of world.

Resources

Requirements

  • ruby 1.9 (support CVS HEAD only)

  • bison 1.28 or later (Other yaccs do not work)

License

Ruby License.

Direct Known Subclasses

Lexer, SexpBuilder

Defined Under Namespace

Classes: Filter, Lexer, SexpBuilder, SexpBuilderPP, TokenPattern

Constant Summary collapse

PARSER_EVENTS =

This array contains name of parser events.

PARSER_EVENT_TABLE.keys
SCANNER_EVENTS =

This array contains name of scanner events.

SCANNER_EVENT_TABLE.keys
EVENTS =

This array contains name of all ripper events.

PARSER_EVENTS + SCANNER_EVENTS

Class Method Summary collapse

Class Method Details

.lex(src, filename = '-', lineno = 1, **kw) ⇒ Object

Tokenizes the Ruby program and returns an array of an array, which is formatted like [[lineno, column], type, token, state]. The filename argument is mostly ignored. By default, this method does not handle syntax errors in src, use the raise_errors keyword to raise a SyntaxError for an error in src.

require 'ripper'
require 'pp'

pp Ripper.lex("def m(a) nil end")
#=> [[[1,  0], :on_kw,     "def", FNAME    ],
     [[1,  3], :on_sp,     " ",   FNAME    ],
     [[1,  4], :on_ident,  "m",   ENDFN    ],
     [[1,  5], :on_lparen, "(",   BEG|LABEL],
     [[1,  6], :on_ident,  "a",   ARG      ],
     [[1,  7], :on_rparen, ")",   ENDFN    ],
     [[1,  8], :on_sp,     " ",   BEG      ],
     [[1,  9], :on_kw,     "nil", END      ],
     [[1, 12], :on_sp,     " ",   END      ],
     [[1, 13], :on_kw,     "end", END      ]]

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# File 'lib/ripper/lexer.rb', line 51

def Ripper.lex(src, filename = '-', lineno = 1, **kw)
  Lexer.new(src, filename, lineno).lex(**kw)
end

.parse(src, filename = '(ripper)', lineno = 1) ⇒ Object

Parses the given Ruby program read from src. src must be a String or an IO or a object with a #gets method.


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# File 'lib/ripper/core.rb', line 18

def Ripper.parse(src, filename = '(ripper)', lineno = 1)
  new(src, filename, lineno).parse
end

.sexp(src, filename = '-', lineno = 1, raise_errors: false) ⇒ Object

EXPERIMENTAL

Parses src and create S-exp tree. Returns more readable tree rather than Ripper.sexp_raw. This method is mainly for developer use. The filename argument is mostly ignored. By default, this method does not handle syntax errors in src, returning nil in such cases. Use the raise_errors keyword to raise a SyntaxError for an error in src.

require 'ripper'
require 'pp'

pp Ripper.sexp("def m(a) nil end")
  #=> [:program,
       [[:def,
        [:@ident, "m", [1, 4]],
        [:paren, [:params, [[:@ident, "a", [1, 6]]], nil, nil, nil, nil, nil, nil]],
        [:bodystmt, [[:var_ref, [:@kw, "nil", [1, 9]]]], nil, nil, nil]]]]

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# File 'lib/ripper/sexp.rb', line 35

def Ripper.sexp(src, filename = '-', lineno = 1, raise_errors: false)
  builder = SexpBuilderPP.new(src, filename, lineno)
  sexp = builder.parse
  if builder.error?
    if raise_errors
      raise SyntaxError, builder.error
    end
  else
    sexp
  end
end

.sexp_raw(src, filename = '-', lineno = 1, raise_errors: false) ⇒ Object

EXPERIMENTAL

Parses src and create S-exp tree. This method is mainly for developer use. The filename argument is mostly ignored. By default, this method does not handle syntax errors in src, returning nil in such cases. Use the raise_errors keyword to raise a SyntaxError for an error in src.

require 'ripper'
require 'pp'

pp Ripper.sexp_raw("def m(a) nil end")
  #=> [:program,
       [:stmts_add,
        [:stmts_new],
        [:def,
         [:@ident, "m", [1, 4]],
         [:paren, [:params, [[:@ident, "a", [1, 6]]], nil, nil, nil]],
         [:bodystmt,
          [:stmts_add, [:stmts_new], [:var_ref, [:@kw, "nil", [1, 9]]]],
          nil,
          nil,
          nil]]]]

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# File 'lib/ripper/sexp.rb', line 71

def Ripper.sexp_raw(src, filename = '-', lineno = 1, raise_errors: false)
  builder = SexpBuilder.new(src, filename, lineno)
  sexp = builder.parse
  if builder.error?
    if raise_errors
      raise SyntaxError, builder.error
    end
  else
    sexp
  end
end

.slice(src, pattern, n = 0) ⇒ Object

EXPERIMENTAL

Parses src and return a string which was matched to pattern. pattern should be described as Regexp.

require 'ripper'

p Ripper.slice('def m(a) nil end', 'ident')                   #=> "m"
p Ripper.slice('def m(a) nil end', '[ident lparen rparen]+')  #=> "m(a)"
p Ripper.slice("<<EOS\nstring\nEOS",
               'heredoc_beg nl $(tstring_content*) heredoc_end', 1)
    #=> "string\n"

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# File 'lib/ripper/lexer.rb', line 224

def Ripper.slice(src, pattern, n = 0)
  if m = token_match(src, pattern)
  then m.string(n)
  else nil
  end
end

.token_match(src, pattern) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/ripper/lexer.rb', line 231

def Ripper.token_match(src, pattern)   #:nodoc:
  TokenPattern.compile(pattern).match(src)
end

.tokenize(src, filename = '-', lineno = 1, **kw) ⇒ Object

Tokenizes the Ruby program and returns an array of strings. The filename and lineno arguments are mostly ignored, since the return value is just the tokenized input. By default, this method does not handle syntax errors in src, use the raise_errors keyword to raise a SyntaxError for an error in src.

p Ripper.tokenize("def m(a) nil end")
   # => ["def", " ", "m", "(", "a", ")", " ", "nil", " ", "end"]

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# File 'lib/ripper/lexer.rb', line 25

def Ripper.tokenize(src, filename = '-', lineno = 1, **kw)
  Lexer.new(src, filename, lineno).tokenize(**kw)
end