Class: BasicSocket

Inherits:
IO
  • Object
show all
Defined in:
basicsocket.c,
basicsocket.c,
lib/socket.rb

Overview

BasicSocket is the super class for all the Socket classes.

Direct Known Subclasses

IPSocket, Socket, UNIXSocket

Class Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Class Method Details

.do_not_reverse_lookupBoolean

Gets the global do_not_reverse_lookup flag.

BasicSocket.do_not_reverse_lookup  #=> false

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# File 'basicsocket.c', line 700

static VALUE
bsock_do_not_rev_lookup(void)
{
    return rsock_do_not_reverse_lookup?Qtrue:Qfalse;
}

.do_not_reverse_lookup=(bool) ⇒ Object

Sets the global do_not_reverse_lookup flag.

The flag is used for initial value of do_not_reverse_lookup for each socket.

s1 = TCPSocket.new("localhost", 80)
p s1.do_not_reverse_lookup                 #=> true
BasicSocket.do_not_reverse_lookup = false
s2 = TCPSocket.new("localhost", 80)
p s2.do_not_reverse_lookup                 #=> false
p s1.do_not_reverse_lookup                 #=> true

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# File 'basicsocket.c', line 722

static VALUE
bsock_do_not_rev_lookup_set(VALUE self, VALUE val)
{
    rsock_do_not_reverse_lookup = RTEST(val);
    return val;
}

.for_fd(fd) ⇒ Object

Returns a socket object which contains the file descriptor, fd.

# If invoked by inetd, STDIN/STDOUT/STDERR is a socket.
STDIN_SOCK = Socket.for_fd(STDIN.fileno)
p STDIN_SOCK.remote_address

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# File 'basicsocket.c', line 24

static VALUE
bsock_s_for_fd(VALUE klass, VALUE fd)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    VALUE sock = rsock_init_sock(rb_obj_alloc(klass), NUM2INT(fd));

    GetOpenFile(sock, fptr);

    return sock;
}

Instance Method Details

#close_readnil

Disallows further read using shutdown system call.

s1, s2 = UNIXSocket.pair
s1.close_read
s2.puts #=> Broken pipe (Errno::EPIPE)

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# File 'basicsocket.c', line 95

static VALUE
bsock_close_read(VALUE sock)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    GetOpenFile(sock, fptr);
    shutdown(fptr->fd, 0);
    if (!(fptr->mode & FMODE_WRITABLE)) {
	return rb_io_close(sock);
    }
    fptr->mode &= ~FMODE_READABLE;

    return Qnil;
}

#close_writenil

Disallows further write using shutdown system call.

UNIXSocket.pair {|s1, s2|
  s1.print "ping"
  s1.close_write
  p s2.read        #=> "ping"
  s2.print "pong"
  s2.close
  p s1.read        #=> "pong"
}

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# File 'basicsocket.c', line 125

static VALUE
bsock_close_write(VALUE sock)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    GetOpenFile(sock, fptr);
    if (!(fptr->mode & FMODE_READABLE)) {
	return rb_io_close(sock);
    }
    shutdown(fptr->fd, 1);
    fptr->mode &= ~FMODE_WRITABLE;

    return Qnil;
}

#connect_addressObject

Returns an address of the socket suitable for connect in the local machine.

This method returns self.local_address, except following condition.

  • IPv4 unspecified address (0.0.0.0) is replaced by IPv4 loopback address (127.0.0.1).

  • IPv6 unspecified address (::) is replaced by IPv6 loopback address (::1).

If the local address is not suitable for connect, SocketError is raised. IPv4 and IPv6 address which port is 0 is not suitable for connect. Unix domain socket which has no path is not suitable for connect.

Addrinfo.tcp("0.0.0.0", 0).listen {|serv|
  p serv.connect_address #=> #<Addrinfo: 127.0.0.1:53660 TCP>
  serv.connect_address.connect {|c|
    s, _ = serv.accept
    p [c, s] #=> [#<Socket:fd 4>, #<Socket:fd 6>]
  }
}

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# File 'lib/socket.rb', line 256

def connect_address
  addr = local_address
  afamily = addr.afamily
  if afamily == Socket::AF_INET
    raise SocketError, "unbound IPv4 socket" if addr.ip_port == 0
    if addr.ip_address == "0.0.0.0"
      addr = Addrinfo.new(["AF_INET", addr.ip_port, nil, "127.0.0.1"], addr.pfamily, addr.socktype, addr.protocol)
    end
  elsif defined?(Socket::AF_INET6) && afamily == Socket::AF_INET6
    raise SocketError, "unbound IPv6 socket" if addr.ip_port == 0
    if addr.ip_address == "::"
      addr = Addrinfo.new(["AF_INET6", addr.ip_port, nil, "::1"], addr.pfamily, addr.socktype, addr.protocol)
    elsif addr.ip_address == "0.0.0.0" # MacOS X 10.4 returns "a.b.c.d" for IPv4-mapped IPv6 address.
      addr = Addrinfo.new(["AF_INET6", addr.ip_port, nil, "::1"], addr.pfamily, addr.socktype, addr.protocol)
    elsif addr.ip_address == "::ffff:0.0.0.0" # MacOS X 10.6 returns "::ffff:a.b.c.d" for IPv4-mapped IPv6 address.
      addr = Addrinfo.new(["AF_INET6", addr.ip_port, nil, "::1"], addr.pfamily, addr.socktype, addr.protocol)
    end
  elsif defined?(Socket::AF_UNIX) && afamily == Socket::AF_UNIX
    raise SocketError, "unbound Unix socket" if addr.unix_path == ""
  end
  addr
end

#do_not_reverse_lookupBoolean

Gets the do_not_reverse_lookup flag of basicsocket.

TCPSocket.open("www.ruby-lang.org", 80) {|sock|
  p sock.do_not_reverse_lookup      #=> false
  p sock.peeraddr                   #=> ["AF_INET", 80, "carbon.ruby-lang.org", "221.186.184.68"]
  sock.do_not_reverse_lookup = true
  p sock.peeraddr                   #=> ["AF_INET", 80, "221.186.184.68", "221.186.184.68"]
}

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# File 'basicsocket.c', line 580

static VALUE
bsock_do_not_reverse_lookup(VALUE sock)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    GetOpenFile(sock, fptr);
    return (fptr->mode & FMODE_NOREVLOOKUP) ? Qtrue : Qfalse;
}

#do_not_reverse_lookup=(bool) ⇒ Object

Sets the do_not_reverse_lookup flag of basicsocket.

BasicSocket.do_not_reverse_lookup = false
p TCPSocket.new("127.0.0.1", 80).do_not_reverse_lookup #=> false
BasicSocket.do_not_reverse_lookup = true
p TCPSocket.new("127.0.0.1", 80).do_not_reverse_lookup #=> true

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# File 'basicsocket.c', line 601

static VALUE
bsock_do_not_reverse_lookup_set(VALUE sock, VALUE state)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    GetOpenFile(sock, fptr);
    if (RTEST(state)) {
	fptr->mode |= FMODE_NOREVLOOKUP;
    }
    else {
	fptr->mode &= ~FMODE_NOREVLOOKUP;
    }
    return sock;
}

#getpeereidArray

Returns the user and group on the peer of the UNIX socket. The result is a two element array which contains the effective uid and the effective gid.

Socket.unix_server_loop("/tmp/sock") {|s|
  begin
    euid, egid = s.getpeereid

    # Check the connected client is myself or not.
    next if euid != Process.uid

    # do something about my resource.

  ensure
    s.close
  end
}

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# File 'basicsocket.c', line 414

static VALUE
bsock_getpeereid(VALUE self)
{
#if defined(HAVE_GETPEEREID)
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    uid_t euid;
    gid_t egid;
    GetOpenFile(self, fptr);
    if (getpeereid(fptr->fd, &euid, &egid) == -1)
	rb_sys_fail("getpeereid(3)");
    return rb_assoc_new(UIDT2NUM(euid), GIDT2NUM(egid));
#elif defined(SO_PEERCRED) /* GNU/Linux */
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    struct ucred cred;
    socklen_t len = sizeof(cred);
    GetOpenFile(self, fptr);
    if (getsockopt(fptr->fd, SOL_SOCKET, SO_PEERCRED, &cred, &len) == -1)
	rb_sys_fail("getsockopt(SO_PEERCRED)");
    return rb_assoc_new(UIDT2NUM(cred.uid), GIDT2NUM(cred.gid));
#elif defined(HAVE_GETPEERUCRED) /* Solaris */
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    ucred_t *uc = NULL;
    VALUE ret;
    GetOpenFile(self, fptr);
    if (getpeerucred(fptr->fd, &uc) == -1)
	rb_sys_fail("getpeerucred(3C)");
    ret = rb_assoc_new(UIDT2NUM(ucred_geteuid(uc)), GIDT2NUM(ucred_getegid(uc)));
    ucred_free(uc);
    return ret;
#endif
}

#getpeernameObject

Returns the remote address of the socket as a sockaddr string.

TCPServer.open("127.0.0.1", 1440) {|serv|
  c = TCPSocket.new("127.0.0.1", 1440)
  s = serv.accept
  p s.getpeername #=> "\x02\x00\x82u\x7F\x00\x00\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"
}

If Addrinfo object is preferred over the binary string, use BasicSocket#remote_address.


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# File 'basicsocket.c', line 376

static VALUE
bsock_getpeername(VALUE sock)
{
    union_sockaddr buf;
    socklen_t len = (socklen_t)sizeof buf;
    socklen_t len0 = len;
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    GetOpenFile(sock, fptr);
    if (getpeername(fptr->fd, &buf.addr, &len) < 0)
	rb_sys_fail("getpeername(2)");
    if (len0 < len) len = len0;
    return rb_str_new((char*)&buf, len);
}

#getsocknameObject

Returns the local address of the socket as a sockaddr string.

TCPServer.open("127.0.0.1", 15120) {|serv|
  p serv.getsockname #=> "\x02\x00;\x10\x7F\x00\x00\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"
}

If Addrinfo object is preferred over the binary string, use BasicSocket#local_address.


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# File 'basicsocket.c', line 345

static VALUE
bsock_getsockname(VALUE sock)
{
    union_sockaddr buf;
    socklen_t len = (socklen_t)sizeof buf;
    socklen_t len0 = len;
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    GetOpenFile(sock, fptr);
    if (getsockname(fptr->fd, &buf.addr, &len) < 0)
	rb_sys_fail("getsockname(2)");
    if (len0 < len) len = len0;
    return rb_str_new((char*)&buf, len);
}

#getsockopt(level, optname) ⇒ Object

Gets a socket option. These are protocol and system specific, see your local system documentation for details. The option is returned as a Socket::Option object.

Parameters

  • level is an integer, usually one of the SOL_ constants such as Socket::SOL_SOCKET, or a protocol level. A string or symbol of the name, possibly without prefix, is also accepted.

  • optname is an integer, usually one of the SO_ constants, such as Socket::SO_REUSEADDR. A string or symbol of the name, possibly without prefix, is also accepted.

Examples

Some socket options are integers with boolean values, in this case #getsockopt could be called like this:

reuseaddr = sock.getsockopt(:SOCKET, :REUSEADDR).bool

optval = sock.getsockopt(Socket::SOL_SOCKET,Socket::SO_REUSEADDR)
optval = optval.unpack "i"
reuseaddr = optval[0] == 0 ? false : true

Some socket options are integers with numeric values, in this case #getsockopt could be called like this:

ipttl = sock.getsockopt(:IP, :TTL).int

optval = sock.getsockopt(Socket::IPPROTO_IP, Socket::IP_TTL)
ipttl = optval.unpack("i")[0]

Option values may be structs. Decoding them can be complex as it involves examining your system headers to determine the correct definition. An example is a struct linger, which may be defined in your system headers as:

struct linger {
  int l_onoff;
  int l_linger;
};

In this case #getsockopt could be called like this:

# Socket::Option knows linger structure.
onoff, linger = sock.getsockopt(:SOCKET, :LINGER).linger

optval =  sock.getsockopt(Socket::SOL_SOCKET, Socket::SO_LINGER)
onoff, linger = optval.unpack "ii"
onoff = onoff == 0 ? false : true

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# File 'basicsocket.c', line 305

static VALUE
bsock_getsockopt(VALUE sock, VALUE lev, VALUE optname)
{
    int level, option;
    socklen_t len;
    char *buf;
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    int family;

    GetOpenFile(sock, fptr);
    family = rsock_getfamily(fptr->fd);
    level = rsock_level_arg(family, lev);
    option = rsock_optname_arg(family, level, optname);
    len = 256;
    buf = ALLOCA_N(char,len);

    rb_io_check_closed(fptr);

    if (getsockopt(fptr->fd, level, option, buf, &len) < 0)
	rsock_sys_fail_path("getsockopt(2)", fptr->pathv);

    return rsock_sockopt_new(family, level, option, rb_str_new(buf, len));
}

#local_addressObject

Returns an Addrinfo object for local address obtained by getsockname.

Note that addrinfo.protocol is filled by 0.

TCPSocket.open("www.ruby-lang.org", 80) {|s|
  p s.local_address #=> #<Addrinfo: 192.168.0.129:36873 TCP>
}

TCPServer.open("127.0.0.1", 1512) {|serv|
  p serv.local_address #=> #<Addrinfo: 127.0.0.1:1512 TCP>
}

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# File 'basicsocket.c', line 466

static VALUE
bsock_local_address(VALUE sock)
{
    union_sockaddr buf;
    socklen_t len = (socklen_t)sizeof buf;
    socklen_t len0 = len;
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    GetOpenFile(sock, fptr);
    if (getsockname(fptr->fd, &buf.addr, &len) < 0)
	rb_sys_fail("getsockname(2)");
    if (len0 < len) len = len0;
    return rsock_fd_socket_addrinfo(fptr->fd, &buf.addr, len);
}

#recv(maxlen) ⇒ Object #recv(maxlen, flags) ⇒ Object

Receives a message.

maxlen is the maximum number of bytes to receive.

flags should be a bitwise OR of Socket::MSG_* constants.

UNIXSocket.pair {|s1, s2|
  s1.puts "Hello World"
  p s2.recv(4)                     #=> "Hell"
  p s2.recv(4, Socket::MSG_PEEK)   #=> "o Wo"
  p s2.recv(4)                     #=> "o Wo"
  p s2.recv(10)                    #=> "rld\n"
}

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# File 'basicsocket.c', line 635

static VALUE
bsock_recv(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE sock)
{
    return rsock_s_recvfrom(sock, argc, argv, RECV_RECV);
}

#recv_nonblock(maxlen) ⇒ Object #recv_nonblock(maxlen, flags) ⇒ Object

Receives up to maxlen bytes from socket using recvfrom(2) after O_NONBLOCK is set for the underlying file descriptor. flags is zero or more of the MSG_ options. The result, mesg, is the data received.

When recvfrom(2) returns 0, Socket#recv_nonblock returns an empty string as data. The meaning depends on the socket: EOF on TCP, empty packet on UDP, etc.

Parameters

  • maxlen - the number of bytes to receive from the socket

  • flags - zero or more of the MSG_ options

Example

serv = TCPServer.new(“127.0.0.1”, 0) af, port, host, addr = serv.addr c = TCPSocket.new(addr, port) s = serv.accept c.send “aaa”, 0 begin # emulate blocking recv. p s.recv_nonblock(10) #=> “aaa” rescue IO::WaitReadable IO.select() retry end

Refer to Socket#recvfrom for the exceptions that may be thrown if the call to recv_nonblock fails.

BasicSocket#recv_nonblock may raise any error corresponding to recvfrom(2) failure, including Errno::EWOULDBLOCK.

If the exception is Errno::EWOULDBLOCK or Errno::AGAIN, it is extended by IO::WaitReadable. So IO::WaitReadable can be used to rescue the exceptions for retrying recv_nonblock.

See

  • Socket#recvfrom


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# File 'basicsocket.c', line 686

static VALUE
bsock_recv_nonblock(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE sock)
{
    return rsock_s_recvfrom_nonblock(sock, argc, argv, RECV_RECV);
}

#recvmsg(maxmesglen = nil, flags = 0, maxcontrollen = nil, opts = {}) ⇒ Array

recvmsg receives a message using recvmsg(2) system call in blocking manner.

maxmesglen is the maximum length of mesg to receive.

flags is bitwise OR of MSG_* constants such as Socket::MSG_PEEK.

maxcontrollen is the maximum length of controls (ancillary data) to receive.

opts is option hash. Currently :scm_rights=>bool is the only option.

:scm_rights option specifies that application expects SCM_RIGHTS control message. If the value is nil or false, application don't expects SCM_RIGHTS control message. In this case, recvmsg closes the passed file descriptors immediately. This is the default behavior.

If :scm_rights value is neither nil nor false, application expects SCM_RIGHTS control message. In this case, recvmsg creates IO objects for each file descriptors for Socket::AncillaryData#unix_rights method.

The return value is 4-elements array.

mesg is a string of the received message.

sender_addrinfo is a sender socket address for connection-less socket. It is an Addrinfo object. For connection-oriented socket such as TCP, sender_addrinfo is platform dependent.

rflags is a flags on the received message which is bitwise OR of MSG_* constants such as Socket::MSG_TRUNC. It will be nil if the system uses 4.3BSD style old recvmsg system call.

controls is ancillary data which is an array of Socket::AncillaryData objects such as:

#<Socket::AncillaryData: AF_UNIX SOCKET RIGHTS 7>

maxmesglen and maxcontrollen can be nil. In that case, the buffer will be grown until the message is not truncated. Internally, MSG_PEEK is used and MSG_TRUNC/MSG_CTRUNC are checked.

recvmsg can be used to implement recv_io as follows:

mesg, sender_sockaddr, rflags, *controls = sock.recvmsg(:scm_rights=>true)
controls.each {|ancdata|
  if ancdata.cmsg_is?(:SOCKET, :RIGHTS)
    return ancdata.unix_rights[0]
  end
}

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# File 'ancdata.c', line 1775

VALUE
rsock_bsock_recvmsg(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE sock)
{
    return bsock_recvmsg_internal(argc, argv, sock, 0);
}

#recvmsg_nonblock(maxdatalen = nil, flags = 0, maxcontrollen = nil, opts = {}) ⇒ Array

recvmsg receives a message using recvmsg(2) system call in non-blocking manner.

It is similar to BasicSocket#recvmsg but non-blocking flag is set before the system call and it doesn't retry the system call.


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# File 'ancdata.c', line 1794

VALUE
rsock_bsock_recvmsg_nonblock(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE sock)
{
    return bsock_recvmsg_internal(argc, argv, sock, 1);
}

#remote_addressObject

Returns an Addrinfo object for remote address obtained by getpeername.

Note that addrinfo.protocol is filled by 0.

TCPSocket.open("www.ruby-lang.org", 80) {|s|
  p s.remote_address #=> #<Addrinfo: 221.186.184.68:80 TCP>
}

TCPServer.open("127.0.0.1", 1728) {|serv|
  c = TCPSocket.new("127.0.0.1", 1728)
  s = serv.accept
  p s.remote_address #=> #<Addrinfo: 127.0.0.1:36504 TCP>
}

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# File 'basicsocket.c', line 500

static VALUE
bsock_remote_address(VALUE sock)
{
    union_sockaddr buf;
    socklen_t len = (socklen_t)sizeof buf;
    socklen_t len0 = len;
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    GetOpenFile(sock, fptr);
    if (getpeername(fptr->fd, &buf.addr, &len) < 0)
	rb_sys_fail("getpeername(2)");
    if (len0 < len) len = len0;
    return rsock_fd_socket_addrinfo(fptr->fd, &buf.addr, len);
}

#send(mesg, flags[, dest_sockaddr]) ⇒ Object

send mesg via basicsocket.

mesg should be a string.

flags should be a bitwise OR of Socket::MSG_* constants.

dest_sockaddr should be a packed sockaddr string or an addrinfo.

TCPSocket.open("localhost", 80) {|s|
  s.send "GET / HTTP/1.0\r\n\r\n", 0
  p s.read
}

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# File 'basicsocket.c', line 532

VALUE
rsock_bsock_send(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE sock)
{
    struct rsock_send_arg arg;
    VALUE flags, to;
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    int n;
    rb_blocking_function_t *func;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "21", &arg.mesg, &flags, &to);

    StringValue(arg.mesg);
    if (!NIL_P(to)) {
	SockAddrStringValue(to);
	to = rb_str_new4(to);
	arg.to = (struct sockaddr *)RSTRING_PTR(to);
	arg.tolen = RSTRING_SOCKLEN(to);
	func = rsock_sendto_blocking;
    }
    else {
	func = rsock_send_blocking;
    }
    GetOpenFile(sock, fptr);
    arg.fd = fptr->fd;
    arg.flags = NUM2INT(flags);
    while (rsock_maybe_fd_writable(arg.fd),
	   (n = (int)BLOCKING_REGION_FD(func, &arg)) < 0) {
	if (rb_io_wait_writable(arg.fd)) {
	    continue;
	}
	rb_sys_fail("send(2)");
    }
    return INT2FIX(n);
}

#sendmsg(mesg, flags = 0, dest_sockaddr = nil, *controls) ⇒ Object

sendmsg sends a message using sendmsg(2) system call in blocking manner.

mesg is a string to send.

flags is bitwise OR of MSG_* constants such as Socket::MSG_OOB.

dest_sockaddr is a destination socket address for connection-less socket. It should be a sockaddr such as a result of Socket.sockaddr_in. An Addrinfo object can be used too.

controls is a list of ancillary data. The element of controls should be Socket::AncillaryData or 3-elements array. The 3-element array should contains cmsg_level, cmsg_type and data.

The return value, numbytes_sent is an integer which is the number of bytes sent.

sendmsg can be used to implement send_io as follows:

# use Socket::AncillaryData.
ancdata = Socket::AncillaryData.int(:UNIX, :SOCKET, :RIGHTS, io.fileno)
sock.sendmsg("a", 0, nil, ancdata)

# use 3-element array.
ancdata = [:SOCKET, :RIGHTS, [io.fileno].pack("i!")]
sock.sendmsg("\0", 0, nil, ancdata)

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# File 'ancdata.c', line 1332

VALUE
rsock_bsock_sendmsg(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE sock)
{
    return bsock_sendmsg_internal(argc, argv, sock, 0);
}

#sendmsg_nonblock(mesg, flags = 0, dest_sockaddr = nil, *controls) ⇒ Object

sendmsg_nonblock sends a message using sendmsg(2) system call in non-blocking manner.

It is similar to BasicSocket#sendmsg but the non-blocking flag is set before the system call and it doesn't retry the system call.


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# File 'ancdata.c', line 1351

VALUE
rsock_bsock_sendmsg_nonblock(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE sock)
{
    return bsock_sendmsg_internal(argc, argv, sock, 1);
}

#setsockopt(level, optname, optval) ⇒ Object #setsockopt(socketoption) ⇒ Object

Sets a socket option. These are protocol and system specific, see your local system documentation for details.

Parameters

  • level is an integer, usually one of the SOL_ constants such as Socket::SOL_SOCKET, or a protocol level. A string or symbol of the name, possibly without prefix, is also accepted.

  • optname is an integer, usually one of the SO_ constants, such as Socket::SO_REUSEADDR. A string or symbol of the name, possibly without prefix, is also accepted.

  • optval is the value of the option, it is passed to the underlying setsockopt() as a pointer to a certain number of bytes. How this is done depends on the type:

    • Fixnum: value is assigned to an int, and a pointer to the int is passed, with length of sizeof(int).

    • true or false: 1 or 0 (respectively) is assigned to an int, and the int is passed as for a Fixnum. Note that false must be passed, not nil.

    • String: the string's data and length is passed to the socket.

  • socketoption is an instance of Socket::Option

Examples

Some socket options are integers with boolean values, in this case #setsockopt could be called like this:

sock.setsockopt(:SOCKET, :REUSEADDR, true)
sock.setsockopt(Socket::SOL_SOCKET,Socket::SO_REUSEADDR, true)
sock.setsockopt(Socket::Option.bool(:INET, :SOCKET, :REUSEADDR, true))

Some socket options are integers with numeric values, in this case #setsockopt could be called like this:

sock.setsockopt(:IP, :TTL, 255)
sock.setsockopt(Socket::IPPROTO_IP, Socket::IP_TTL, 255)
sock.setsockopt(Socket::Option.int(:INET, :IP, :TTL, 255))

Option values may be structs. Passing them can be complex as it involves examining your system headers to determine the correct definition. An example is an ip_mreq, which may be defined in your system headers as:

struct ip_mreq {
  struct  in_addr imr_multiaddr;
  struct  in_addr imr_interface;
};

In this case #setsockopt could be called like this:

optval = IPAddr.new("224.0.0.251").hton +
         IPAddr.new(Socket::INADDR_ANY, Socket::AF_INET).hton
sock.setsockopt(Socket::IPPROTO_IP, Socket::IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP, optval)

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# File 'basicsocket.c', line 197

static VALUE
bsock_setsockopt(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE sock)
{
    VALUE lev, optname, val;
    int family, level, option;
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    int i;
    char *v;
    int vlen;

    if (argc == 1) {
        lev = rb_funcall(argv[0], rb_intern("level"), 0);
        optname = rb_funcall(argv[0], rb_intern("optname"), 0);
        val = rb_funcall(argv[0], rb_intern("data"), 0);
    }
    else {
        rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "30", &lev, &optname, &val);
    }

    rb_secure(2);
    GetOpenFile(sock, fptr);
    family = rsock_getfamily(fptr->fd);
    level = rsock_level_arg(family, lev);
    option = rsock_optname_arg(family, level, optname);

    switch (TYPE(val)) {
      case T_FIXNUM:
	i = FIX2INT(val);
	goto numval;
      case T_FALSE:
	i = 0;
	goto numval;
      case T_TRUE:
	i = 1;
      numval:
	v = (char*)&i; vlen = (int)sizeof(i);
	break;
      default:
	StringValue(val);
	v = RSTRING_PTR(val);
	vlen = RSTRING_SOCKLEN(val);
	break;
    }

    rb_io_check_closed(fptr);
    if (setsockopt(fptr->fd, level, option, v, vlen) < 0)
        rsock_sys_fail_path("setsockopt(2)", fptr->pathv);

    return INT2FIX(0);
}

#shutdown([how]) ⇒ 0

Calls shutdown(2) system call.

s.shutdown(Socket::SHUT_RD) disallows further read.

s.shutdown(Socket::SHUT_WR) disallows further write.

s.shutdown(Socket::SHUT_RDWR) disallows further read and write.

how can be symbol or string:

  • :RD, :SHUT_RD, “RD” and “SHUT_RD” are accepted as Socket::SHUT_RD.

  • :WR, :SHUT_WR, “WR” and “SHUT_WR” are accepted as Socket::SHUT_WR.

  • :RDWR, :SHUT_RDWR, “RDWR” and “SHUT_RDWR” are accepted as Socket::SHUT_RDWR.

    UNIXSocket.pair {|s1, s2|

    s1.puts "ping"
    s1.shutdown(:WR)
    p s2.read          #=> "ping\n"
    s2.puts "pong"
    s2.close
    p s1.read          #=> "pong\n"
    

    }


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# File 'basicsocket.c', line 62

static VALUE
bsock_shutdown(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE sock)
{
    VALUE howto;
    int how;
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "01", &howto);
    if (howto == Qnil)
	how = SHUT_RDWR;
    else {
	how = rsock_shutdown_how_arg(howto);
        if (how != SHUT_WR && how != SHUT_RD && how != SHUT_RDWR) {
	    rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "`how' should be either :SHUT_RD, :SHUT_WR, :SHUT_RDWR");
	}
    }
    GetOpenFile(sock, fptr);
    if (shutdown(fptr->fd, how) == -1)
	rb_sys_fail("shutdown(2)");

    return INT2FIX(0);
}