Class: Addrinfo

Inherits:
Data
  • Object
show all
Defined in:
raddrinfo.c,
lib/socket.rb

Class Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Constructor Details

#new(sockaddr) ⇒ Object #new(sockaddr, family) ⇒ Object #new(sockaddr, family, socktype) ⇒ Object #new(sockaddr, family, socktype, protocol) ⇒ Object

returns a new instance of Addrinfo. The instance contains sockaddr, family, socktype, protocol. sockaddr means struct sockaddr which can be used for connect(2), etc. family, socktype and protocol are integers which is used for arguments of socket(2).

sockaddr is specified as an array or a string. The array should be compatible to the value of IPSocket#addr or UNIXSocket#addr. The string should be struct sockaddr as generated by Socket.sockaddr_in or Socket.unpack_sockaddr_un.

sockaddr examples:

  • “AF_INET”, 46102, “localhost.localdomain”, “127.0.0.1”
  • “AF_INET6”, 42304, “ip6-localhost”, “::1”
  • “AF_UNIX”, “/tmp/sock”
  • Socket.sockaddr_in(“smtp”, “2001:DB8::1”)

  • Socket.sockaddr_in(80, “172.18.22.42”)

  • Socket.sockaddr_in(80, “www.ruby-lang.org”)

  • Socket.sockaddr_un(“/tmp/sock”)

In an AF_INET/AF_INET6 sockaddr array, the 4th element, numeric IP address, is used to construct socket address in the Addrinfo instance. If the 3rd element, textual host name, is non-nil, it is also recorded but used only for Addrinfo#inspect.

family is specified as an integer to specify the protocol family such as Socket::PF_INET. It can be a symbol or a string which is the constant name with or without PF_ prefix such as :INET, :INET6, :UNIX, “PF_INET”, etc. If omitted, PF_UNSPEC is assumed.

socktype is specified as an integer to specify the socket type such as Socket::SOCK_STREAM. It can be a symbol or a string which is the constant name with or without SOCK_ prefix such as :STREAM, :DGRAM, :RAW, “SOCK_STREAM”, etc. If omitted, 0 is assumed.

protocol is specified as an integer to specify the protocol such as Socket::IPPROTO_TCP. It must be an integer, unlike family and socktype. If omitted, 0 is assumed. Note that 0 is reasonable value for most protocols, except raw socket.


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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 1026

static VALUE
addrinfo_initialize(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE self)
{
    rb_addrinfo_t *rai;
    VALUE sockaddr_arg, sockaddr_ary, pfamily, socktype, protocol;
    int i_pfamily, i_socktype, i_protocol;
    struct sockaddr *sockaddr_ptr;
    socklen_t sockaddr_len;
    VALUE canonname = Qnil, inspectname = Qnil;

    if (check_addrinfo(self))
        rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "already initialized socket address");
    DATA_PTR(self) = rai = alloc_addrinfo();

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "13", &sockaddr_arg, &pfamily, &socktype, &protocol);

    i_pfamily = NIL_P(pfamily) ? PF_UNSPEC : rsock_family_arg(pfamily);
    i_socktype = NIL_P(socktype) ? 0 : rsock_socktype_arg(socktype);
    i_protocol = NIL_P(protocol) ? 0 : NUM2INT(protocol);

    sockaddr_ary = rb_check_array_type(sockaddr_arg);
    if (!NIL_P(sockaddr_ary)) {
        VALUE afamily = rb_ary_entry(sockaddr_ary, 0);
        int af;
        StringValue(afamily);
        if (rsock_family_to_int(RSTRING_PTR(afamily), RSTRING_LEN(afamily), &af) == -1)
	    rb_raise(rb_eSocket, "unknown address family: %s", StringValueCStr(afamily));
        switch (af) {
          case AF_INET: /* ["AF_INET", 46102, "localhost.localdomain", "127.0.0.1"] */
#ifdef INET6
          case AF_INET6: /* ["AF_INET6", 42304, "ip6-localhost", "::1"] */
#endif
          {
            VALUE service = rb_ary_entry(sockaddr_ary, 1);
            VALUE nodename = rb_ary_entry(sockaddr_ary, 2);
            VALUE numericnode = rb_ary_entry(sockaddr_ary, 3);
            int flags;

            service = INT2NUM(NUM2INT(service));
            if (!NIL_P(nodename))
                StringValue(nodename);
            StringValue(numericnode);
            flags = AI_NUMERICHOST;
#ifdef AI_NUMERICSERV
            flags |= AI_NUMERICSERV;
#endif

            init_addrinfo_getaddrinfo(rai, numericnode, service,
                    INT2NUM(i_pfamily ? i_pfamily : af), INT2NUM(i_socktype), INT2NUM(i_protocol),
                    INT2NUM(flags),
                    nodename, service);
            break;
          }

#ifdef HAVE_SYS_UN_H
          case AF_UNIX: /* ["AF_UNIX", "/tmp/sock"] */
          {
            VALUE path = rb_ary_entry(sockaddr_ary, 1);
            StringValue(path);
            init_unix_addrinfo(rai, path, SOCK_STREAM);
            break;
          }
#endif

          default:
            rb_raise(rb_eSocket, "unexpected address family");
        }
    }
    else {
        StringValue(sockaddr_arg);
        sockaddr_ptr = (struct sockaddr *)RSTRING_PTR(sockaddr_arg);
        sockaddr_len = RSTRING_SOCKLEN(sockaddr_arg);
        init_addrinfo(rai, sockaddr_ptr, sockaddr_len,
                      i_pfamily, i_socktype, i_protocol,
                      canonname, inspectname);
    }

    return self;
}

Class Method Details

.foreach(nodename, service, family = nil, socktype = nil, protocol = nil, flags = nil, &block) ⇒ Object

iterates over the list of Addrinfo objects obtained by Addrinfo.getaddrinfo.

Addrinfo.foreach(nil, 80) {|x| p x }
#=> #<Addrinfo: 127.0.0.1:80 TCP (:80)>
#   #<Addrinfo: 127.0.0.1:80 UDP (:80)>
#   #<Addrinfo: [::1]:80 TCP (:80)>
#   #<Addrinfo: [::1]:80 UDP (:80)>

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# File 'lib/socket.rb', line 230

def self.foreach(nodename, service, family=nil, socktype=nil, protocol=nil, flags=nil, &block)
  Addrinfo.getaddrinfo(nodename, service, family, socktype, protocol, flags).each(&block)
end

.getaddrinfo(nodename, service, family, socktype, protocol, flags) ⇒ Array .getaddrinfo(nodename, service, family, socktype, protocol) ⇒ Array .getaddrinfo(nodename, service, family, socktype) ⇒ Array .getaddrinfo(nodename, service, family) ⇒ Array .getaddrinfo(nodename, service) ⇒ Array

returns a list of addrinfo objects as an array.

This method converts nodename (hostname) and service (port) to addrinfo. Since the conversion is not unique, the result is a list of addrinfo objects.

nodename or service can be nil if no conversion intended.

family, socktype and protocol are hint for preferred protocol. If the result will be used for a socket with SOCK_STREAM, SOCK_STREAM should be specified as socktype. If so, Addrinfo.getaddrinfo returns addrinfo list appropriate for SOCK_STREAM. If they are omitted or nil is given, the result is not restricted.

Similarly, PF_INET6 as family restricts for IPv6.

flags should be bitwise OR of Socket::AI_??? constants such as follows. Note that the exact list of the constants depends on OS.

AI_PASSIVE      Get address to use with bind()
AI_CANONNAME    Fill in the canonical name
AI_NUMERICHOST  Prevent host name resolution
AI_NUMERICSERV  Prevent service name resolution
AI_V4MAPPED     Accept IPv4-mapped IPv6 addresses
AI_ALL          Allow all addresses
AI_ADDRCONFIG   Accept only if any address is assigned

Note that socktype should be specified whenever application knows the usage of the address. Some platform causes an error when socktype is omitted and servname is specified as an integer because some port numbers, 512 for example, are ambiguous without socktype.

Addrinfo.getaddrinfo("www.kame.net", 80, nil, :STREAM)
#=> [#<Addrinfo: 203.178.141.194:80 TCP (www.kame.net)>,
#    #<Addrinfo: [2001:200:dff:fff1:216:3eff:feb1:44d7]:80 TCP (www.kame.net)>]

Overloads:

  • .getaddrinfo(nodename, service, family, socktype, protocol, flags) ⇒ Array

    Returns:

    • (Array)
  • .getaddrinfo(nodename, service, family, socktype, protocol) ⇒ Array

    Returns:

    • (Array)
  • .getaddrinfo(nodename, service, family, socktype) ⇒ Array

    Returns:

    • (Array)
  • .getaddrinfo(nodename, service, family) ⇒ Array

    Returns:

    • (Array)
  • .getaddrinfo(nodename, service) ⇒ Array

    Returns:

    • (Array)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 2365

static VALUE
addrinfo_s_getaddrinfo(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE self)
{
    VALUE node, service, family, socktype, protocol, flags;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "24", &node, &service, &family, &socktype, &protocol, &flags);
    return addrinfo_list_new(node, service, family, socktype, protocol, flags);
}

.ip(host) ⇒ Object

returns an addrinfo object for IP address.

The port, socktype, protocol of the result is filled by zero. So, it is not appropriate to create a socket.

Addrinfo.ip("localhost") #=> #<Addrinfo: 127.0.0.1 (localhost)>

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 2385

static VALUE
addrinfo_s_ip(VALUE self, VALUE host)
{
    VALUE ret;
    rb_addrinfo_t *rai;
    ret = addrinfo_firstonly_new(host, Qnil,
            INT2NUM(PF_UNSPEC), INT2FIX(0), INT2FIX(0), INT2FIX(0));
    rai = get_addrinfo(ret);
    rai->socktype = 0;
    rai->protocol = 0;
    return ret;
}

.tcp(host, port) ⇒ Object

returns an addrinfo object for TCP address.

Addrinfo.tcp("localhost", "smtp") #=> #<Addrinfo: 127.0.0.1:25 TCP (localhost:smtp)>

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 2406

static VALUE
addrinfo_s_tcp(VALUE self, VALUE host, VALUE port)
{
    return addrinfo_firstonly_new(host, port,
            INT2NUM(PF_UNSPEC), INT2NUM(SOCK_STREAM), INT2NUM(IPPROTO_TCP), INT2FIX(0));
}

.udp(host, port) ⇒ Object

returns an addrinfo object for UDP address.

Addrinfo.udp("localhost", "daytime") #=> #<Addrinfo: 127.0.0.1:13 UDP (localhost:daytime)>

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 2421

static VALUE
addrinfo_s_udp(VALUE self, VALUE host, VALUE port)
{
    return addrinfo_firstonly_new(host, port,
            INT2NUM(PF_UNSPEC), INT2NUM(SOCK_DGRAM), INT2NUM(IPPROTO_UDP), INT2FIX(0));
}

.unix(path[, socktype]) ⇒ Object

returns an addrinfo object for UNIX socket address.

socktype specifies the socket type. If it is omitted, :STREAM is used.

Addrinfo.unix("/tmp/sock")         #=> #<Addrinfo: /tmp/sock SOCK_STREAM>
Addrinfo.unix("/tmp/sock", :DGRAM) #=> #<Addrinfo: /tmp/sock SOCK_DGRAM>

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 2442

static VALUE
addrinfo_s_unix(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE self)
{
    VALUE path, vsocktype, addr;
    int socktype;
    rb_addrinfo_t *rai;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &path, &vsocktype);

    if (NIL_P(vsocktype))
        socktype = SOCK_STREAM;
    else
        socktype = rsock_socktype_arg(vsocktype);

    addr = addrinfo_s_allocate(rb_cAddrinfo);
    DATA_PTR(addr) = rai = alloc_addrinfo();
    init_unix_addrinfo(rai, path, socktype);
    OBJ_INFECT(addr, path);
    return addr;
}

Instance Method Details

#afamilyInteger

returns the address family as an integer.

Addrinfo.tcp("localhost", 80).afamily == Socket::AF_INET #=> true

Returns:

  • (Integer)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 1709

static VALUE
addrinfo_afamily(VALUE self)
{
    rb_addrinfo_t *rai = get_addrinfo(self);
    return INT2NUM(ai_get_afamily(rai));
}

#bindObject

creates a socket bound to self.

If a block is given, it is called with the socket and the value of the block is returned. The socket is returned otherwise.

Addrinfo.udp("0.0.0.0", 9981).bind {|s|
  s.local_address.connect {|s| s.send "hello", 0 }
  p s.recv(10) #=> "hello"
}

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# File 'lib/socket.rb', line 178

def bind
  sock = Socket.new(self.pfamily, self.socktype, self.protocol)
  begin
    sock.ipv6only! if self.ipv6?
    sock.setsockopt(:SOCKET, :REUSEADDR, 1)
    sock.bind(self)
  rescue Exception
    sock.close
    raise
  end
  if block_given?
    begin
      yield sock
    ensure
      sock.close if !sock.closed?
    end
  else
    sock
  end
end

#canonnameString?

returns the canonical name as an string.

nil is returned if no canonical name.

The canonical name is set by Addrinfo.getaddrinfo when AI_CANONNAME is specified.

list = Addrinfo.getaddrinfo("www.ruby-lang.org", 80, :INET, :STREAM, nil, Socket::AI_CANONNAME)
p list[0] #=> #<Addrinfo: 221.186.184.68:80 TCP carbon.ruby-lang.org (www.ruby-lang.org)>
p list[0].canonname #=> "carbon.ruby-lang.org"

Returns:

  • (String, nil)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 1800

static VALUE
addrinfo_canonname(VALUE self)
{
    rb_addrinfo_t *rai = get_addrinfo(self);
    return rai->canonname;
}

#connect(opts = {}, &block) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

addrinfo.connect([opts]) {|socket| ... }
addrinfo.connect([opts])

creates a socket connected to the address of self.

The optional argument opts is options represented by a hash. opts may have following options:

:timeout

specify the timeout in seconds.

If a block is given, it is called with the socket and the value of the block is returned. The socket is returned otherwise.

Addrinfo.tcp("www.ruby-lang.org", 80).connect {|s|
  s.print "GET / HTTP/1.0\r\nHost: www.ruby-lang.org\r\n\r\n"
  puts s.read
}

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# File 'lib/socket.rb', line 138

def connect(opts={}, &block)
  connect_internal(nil, opts[:timeout], &block)
end

#connect_from(*args, &block) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

addrinfo.connect_from([local_addr_args], [opts]) {|socket| ... }
addrinfo.connect_from([local_addr_args], [opts])

creates a socket connected to the address of self.

If one or more arguments given as local_addr_args, it is used as the local address of the socket. local_addr_args is given for family_addrinfo to obtain actual address.

If local_addr_args is not given, the local address of the socket is not bound.

The optional last argument opts is options represented by a hash. opts may have following options:

:timeout

specify the timeout in seconds.

If a block is given, it is called with the socket and the value of the block is returned. The socket is returned otherwise.

Addrinfo.tcp("www.ruby-lang.org", 80).connect_from("0.0.0.0", 4649) {|s|
  s.print "GET / HTTP/1.0\r\nHost: www.ruby-lang.org\r\n\r\n"
  puts s.read
}

# Addrinfo object can be taken for the argument.
Addrinfo.tcp("www.ruby-lang.org", 80).connect_from(Addrinfo.tcp("0.0.0.0", 4649)) {|s|
  s.print "GET / HTTP/1.0\r\nHost: www.ruby-lang.org\r\n\r\n"
  puts s.read
}

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# File 'lib/socket.rb', line 113

def connect_from(*args, &block)
  opts = Hash === args.last ? args.pop : {}
  local_addr_args = args
  connect_internal(family_addrinfo(*local_addr_args), opts[:timeout], &block)
end

#connect_to(*args, &block) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

addrinfo.connect_to([remote_addr_args], [opts]) {|socket| ... }
addrinfo.connect_to([remote_addr_args], [opts])

creates a socket connected to remote_addr_args and bound to self.

The optional last argument opts is options represented by a hash. opts may have following options:

:timeout

specify the timeout in seconds.

If a block is given, it is called with the socket and the value of the block is returned. The socket is returned otherwise.

Addrinfo.tcp("0.0.0.0", 4649).connect_to("www.ruby-lang.org", 80) {|s|
  s.print "GET / HTTP/1.0\r\nHost: www.ruby-lang.org\r\n\r\n"
  puts s.read
}

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# File 'lib/socket.rb', line 161

def connect_to(*args, &block)
  opts = Hash === args.last ? args.pop : {}
  remote_addr_args = args
  remote_addrinfo = family_addrinfo(*remote_addr_args)
  remote_addrinfo.send(:connect_internal, self, opts[:timeout], &block)
end

#family_addrinfo(*args) ⇒ Object

creates an Addrinfo object from the arguments.

The arguments are interpreted as similar to self.

Addrinfo.tcp("0.0.0.0", 4649).family_addrinfo("www.ruby-lang.org", 80)
#=> #<Addrinfo: 221.186.184.68:80 TCP (www.ruby-lang.org:80)>

Addrinfo.unix("/tmp/sock").family_addrinfo("/tmp/sock2")
#=> #<Addrinfo: /tmp/sock2 SOCK_STREAM>

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# File 'lib/socket.rb', line 17

def family_addrinfo(*args)
  if args.empty?
    raise ArgumentError, "no address specified"
  elsif Addrinfo === args.first
    raise ArgumentError, "too many arguments" if args.length != 1
    addrinfo = args.first
    if (self.pfamily != addrinfo.pfamily) ||
       (self.socktype != addrinfo.socktype)
      raise ArgumentError, "Addrinfo type mismatch"
    end
    addrinfo
  elsif self.ip?
    raise ArgumentError, "IP address needs host and port but #{args.length} arguments given" if args.length != 2
    host, port = args
    Addrinfo.getaddrinfo(host, port, self.pfamily, self.socktype, self.protocol)[0]
  elsif self.unix?
    raise ArgumentError, "UNIX socket needs single path argument but #{args.length} arguments given" if args.length != 1
    path, = args
    Addrinfo.unix(path)
  else
    raise ArgumentError, "unexpected family"
  end
end

#getnameinfoArray #getnameinfo(flags) ⇒ Array

returns nodename and service as a pair of strings. This converts struct sockaddr in addrinfo to textual representation.

flags should be bitwise OR of Socket::NI_??? constants.

Addrinfo.tcp("127.0.0.1", 80).getnameinfo #=> ["localhost", "www"]

Addrinfo.tcp("127.0.0.1", 80).getnameinfo(Socket::NI_NUMERICSERV)
#=> ["localhost", "80"]

Overloads:

  • #getnameinfoArray

    Returns:

    • (Array)
  • #getnameinfo(flags) ⇒ Array

    Returns:

    • (Array)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 1907

static VALUE
addrinfo_getnameinfo(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE self)
{
    rb_addrinfo_t *rai = get_addrinfo(self);
    VALUE vflags;
    char hbuf[1024], pbuf[1024];
    int flags, error;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "01", &vflags);

    flags = NIL_P(vflags) ? 0 : NUM2INT(vflags);

    if (rai->socktype == SOCK_DGRAM)
        flags |= NI_DGRAM;

    error = getnameinfo(&rai->addr.addr, rai->sockaddr_len,
                        hbuf, (socklen_t)sizeof(hbuf), pbuf, (socklen_t)sizeof(pbuf),
                        flags);
    if (error) {
        rsock_raise_socket_error("getnameinfo", error);
    }

    return rb_assoc_new(rb_str_new2(hbuf), rb_str_new2(pbuf));
}

#inspectString

returns a string which shows addrinfo in human-readable form.

Addrinfo.tcp("localhost", 80).inspect #=> "#<Addrinfo: 127.0.0.1:80 TCP (localhost)>"
Addrinfo.unix("/tmp/sock").inspect    #=> "#<Addrinfo: /tmp/sock SOCK_STREAM>"

Returns:

  • (String)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 1426

static VALUE
addrinfo_inspect(VALUE self)
{
    rb_addrinfo_t *rai = get_addrinfo(self);
    int internet_p;
    VALUE ret;

    ret = rb_sprintf("#<%s: ", rb_obj_classname(self));

    inspect_sockaddr(self, ret);

    if (rai->pfamily && ai_get_afamily(rai) != rai->pfamily) {
        ID id = rsock_intern_protocol_family(rai->pfamily);
        if (id)
            rb_str_catf(ret, " %s", rb_id2name(id));
        else
            rb_str_catf(ret, " PF_\?\?\?(%d)", rai->pfamily);
    }

    internet_p = rai->pfamily == PF_INET;
#ifdef INET6
    internet_p = internet_p || rai->pfamily == PF_INET6;
#endif
    if (internet_p && rai->socktype == SOCK_STREAM &&
        (rai->protocol == 0 || rai->protocol == IPPROTO_TCP)) {
        rb_str_cat2(ret, " TCP");
    }
    else if (internet_p && rai->socktype == SOCK_DGRAM &&
        (rai->protocol == 0 || rai->protocol == IPPROTO_UDP)) {
        rb_str_cat2(ret, " UDP");
    }
    else {
        if (rai->socktype) {
            ID id = rsock_intern_socktype(rai->socktype);
            if (id)
                rb_str_catf(ret, " %s", rb_id2name(id));
            else
                rb_str_catf(ret, " SOCK_\?\?\?(%d)", rai->socktype);
        }

        if (rai->protocol) {
            if (internet_p) {
                ID id = rsock_intern_ipproto(rai->protocol);
                if (id)
                    rb_str_catf(ret, " %s", rb_id2name(id));
                else
                    goto unknown_protocol;
            }
            else {
              unknown_protocol:
                rb_str_catf(ret, " UNKNOWN_PROTOCOL(%d)", rai->protocol);
            }
        }
    }

    if (!NIL_P(rai->canonname)) {
        VALUE name = rai->canonname;
        rb_str_catf(ret, " %s", StringValueCStr(name));
    }

    if (!NIL_P(rai->inspectname)) {
        VALUE name = rai->inspectname;
        rb_str_catf(ret, " (%s)", StringValueCStr(name));
    }

    rb_str_buf_cat2(ret, ">");
    return ret;
}

#inspect_sockaddrString

returns a string which shows the sockaddr in addrinfo with human-readable form.

Addrinfo.tcp("localhost", 80).inspect_sockaddr     #=> "127.0.0.1:80"
Addrinfo.tcp("ip6-localhost", 80).inspect_sockaddr #=> "[::1]:80"
Addrinfo.unix("/tmp/sock").inspect_sockaddr        #=> "/tmp/sock"

Returns:

  • (String)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 1506

VALUE
rsock_addrinfo_inspect_sockaddr(VALUE self)
{
    return inspect_sockaddr(self, rb_str_new("", 0));
}

#ip?Boolean

returns true if addrinfo is internet (IPv4/IPv6) address. returns false otherwise.

Addrinfo.tcp("127.0.0.1", 80).ip? #=> true
Addrinfo.tcp("::1", 80).ip?       #=> true
Addrinfo.unix("/tmp/sock").ip?    #=> false

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 1819

static VALUE
addrinfo_ip_p(VALUE self)
{
    rb_addrinfo_t *rai = get_addrinfo(self);
    int family = ai_get_afamily(rai);
    return IS_IP_FAMILY(family) ? Qtrue : Qfalse;
}

#ip_addressString

Returns the IP address as a string.

Addrinfo.tcp("127.0.0.1", 80).ip_address    #=> "127.0.0.1"
Addrinfo.tcp("::1", 80).ip_address          #=> "::1"

Returns:

  • (String)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 1968

static VALUE
addrinfo_ip_address(VALUE self)
{
    rb_addrinfo_t *rai = get_addrinfo(self);
    int family = ai_get_afamily(rai);
    VALUE vflags;
    VALUE ret;

    if (!IS_IP_FAMILY(family))
	rb_raise(rb_eSocket, "need IPv4 or IPv6 address");

    vflags = INT2NUM(NI_NUMERICHOST|NI_NUMERICSERV);
    ret = addrinfo_getnameinfo(1, &vflags, self);
    return rb_ary_entry(ret, 0);
}

#ip_portObject

Returns the port number as an integer.

Addrinfo.tcp("127.0.0.1", 80).ip_port    #=> 80
Addrinfo.tcp("::1", 80).ip_port          #=> 80

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 1993

static VALUE
addrinfo_ip_port(VALUE self)
{
    rb_addrinfo_t *rai = get_addrinfo(self);
    int family = ai_get_afamily(rai);
    int port;

    if (!IS_IP_FAMILY(family)) {
      bad_family:
#ifdef AF_INET6
	rb_raise(rb_eSocket, "need IPv4 or IPv6 address");
#else
	rb_raise(rb_eSocket, "need IPv4 address");
#endif
    }

    switch (family) {
      case AF_INET:
        if (rai->sockaddr_len != sizeof(struct sockaddr_in))
            rb_raise(rb_eSocket, "unexpected sockaddr size for IPv4");
        port = ntohs(rai->addr.in.sin_port);
        break;

#ifdef AF_INET6
      case AF_INET6:
        if (rai->sockaddr_len != sizeof(struct sockaddr_in6))
            rb_raise(rb_eSocket, "unexpected sockaddr size for IPv6");
        port = ntohs(rai->addr.in6.sin6_port);
        break;
#endif

      default:
	goto bad_family;
    }

    return INT2NUM(port);
}

#ip_unpackArray

Returns the IP address and port number as 2-element array.

Addrinfo.tcp("127.0.0.1", 80).ip_unpack    #=> ["127.0.0.1", 80]
Addrinfo.tcp("::1", 80).ip_unpack          #=> ["::1", 80]

Returns:

  • (Array)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 1941

static VALUE
addrinfo_ip_unpack(VALUE self)
{
    rb_addrinfo_t *rai = get_addrinfo(self);
    int family = ai_get_afamily(rai);
    VALUE vflags;
    VALUE ret, portstr;

    if (!IS_IP_FAMILY(family))
	rb_raise(rb_eSocket, "need IPv4 or IPv6 address");

    vflags = INT2NUM(NI_NUMERICHOST|NI_NUMERICSERV);
    ret = addrinfo_getnameinfo(1, &vflags, self);
    portstr = rb_ary_entry(ret, 1);
    rb_ary_store(ret, 1, INT2NUM(atoi(StringValueCStr(portstr))));
    return ret;
}

#ipv4?Boolean

returns true if addrinfo is IPv4 address. returns false otherwise.

Addrinfo.tcp("127.0.0.1", 80).ipv4? #=> true
Addrinfo.tcp("::1", 80).ipv4?       #=> false
Addrinfo.unix("/tmp/sock").ipv4?    #=> false

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 1839

static VALUE
addrinfo_ipv4_p(VALUE self)
{
    rb_addrinfo_t *rai = get_addrinfo(self);
    return ai_get_afamily(rai) == AF_INET ? Qtrue : Qfalse;
}

#ipv4_loopback?Boolean

Returns true for IPv4 loopback address (127.0.0.0/8). It returns false otherwise.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 2061

static VALUE
addrinfo_ipv4_loopback_p(VALUE self)
{
    uint32_t a;
    if (!extract_in_addr(self, &a)) return Qfalse;
    if ((a & 0xff000000) == 0x7f000000) /* 127.0.0.0/8 */
        return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

#ipv4_multicast?Boolean

Returns true for IPv4 multicast address (224.0.0.0/4). It returns false otherwise.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 2075

static VALUE
addrinfo_ipv4_multicast_p(VALUE self)
{
    uint32_t a;
    if (!extract_in_addr(self, &a)) return Qfalse;
    if ((a & 0xf0000000) == 0xe0000000) /* 224.0.0.0/4 */
        return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

#ipv4_private?Boolean

Returns true for IPv4 private address (10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12, 192.168.0.0/16). It returns false otherwise.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 2045

static VALUE
addrinfo_ipv4_private_p(VALUE self)
{
    uint32_t a;
    if (!extract_in_addr(self, &a)) return Qfalse;
    if ((a & 0xff000000) == 0x0a000000 || /* 10.0.0.0/8 */
        (a & 0xfff00000) == 0xac100000 || /* 172.16.0.0/12 */
        (a & 0xffff0000) == 0xc0a80000)   /* 192.168.0.0/16 */
        return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

#ipv6?Boolean

returns true if addrinfo is IPv6 address. returns false otherwise.

Addrinfo.tcp("127.0.0.1", 80).ipv6? #=> false
Addrinfo.tcp("::1", 80).ipv6?       #=> true
Addrinfo.unix("/tmp/sock").ipv6?    #=> false

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 1858

static VALUE
addrinfo_ipv6_p(VALUE self)
{
#ifdef AF_INET6
    rb_addrinfo_t *rai = get_addrinfo(self);
    return ai_get_afamily(rai) == AF_INET6 ? Qtrue : Qfalse;
#else
    return Qfalse;
#endif
}

#ipv6_linklocal?Boolean

Returns true for IPv6 link local address (ff80::/10). It returns false otherwise.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 2136

static VALUE
addrinfo_ipv6_linklocal_p(VALUE self)
{
    struct in6_addr *addr = extract_in6_addr(self);
    if (addr && IN6_IS_ADDR_LINKLOCAL(addr)) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

#ipv6_loopback?Boolean

Returns true for IPv6 loopback address (::1). It returns false otherwise.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 2112

static VALUE
addrinfo_ipv6_loopback_p(VALUE self)
{
    struct in6_addr *addr = extract_in6_addr(self);
    if (addr && IN6_IS_ADDR_LOOPBACK(addr)) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

#ipv6_mc_global?Boolean

Returns true for IPv6 multicast global scope address. It returns false otherwise.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 2244

static VALUE
addrinfo_ipv6_mc_global_p(VALUE self)
{
    struct in6_addr *addr = extract_in6_addr(self);
    if (addr && IN6_IS_ADDR_MC_GLOBAL(addr)) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

#ipv6_mc_linklocal?Boolean

Returns true for IPv6 multicast link-local scope address. It returns false otherwise.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 2208

static VALUE
addrinfo_ipv6_mc_linklocal_p(VALUE self)
{
    struct in6_addr *addr = extract_in6_addr(self);
    if (addr && IN6_IS_ADDR_MC_LINKLOCAL(addr)) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

#ipv6_mc_nodelocal?Boolean

Returns true for IPv6 multicast node-local scope address. It returns false otherwise.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 2196

static VALUE
addrinfo_ipv6_mc_nodelocal_p(VALUE self)
{
    struct in6_addr *addr = extract_in6_addr(self);
    if (addr && IN6_IS_ADDR_MC_NODELOCAL(addr)) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

#ipv6_mc_orglocal?Boolean

Returns true for IPv6 multicast organization-local scope address. It returns false otherwise.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 2232

static VALUE
addrinfo_ipv6_mc_orglocal_p(VALUE self)
{
    struct in6_addr *addr = extract_in6_addr(self);
    if (addr && IN6_IS_ADDR_MC_ORGLOCAL(addr)) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

#ipv6_mc_sitelocal?Boolean

Returns true for IPv6 multicast site-local scope address. It returns false otherwise.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 2220

static VALUE
addrinfo_ipv6_mc_sitelocal_p(VALUE self)
{
    struct in6_addr *addr = extract_in6_addr(self);
    if (addr && IN6_IS_ADDR_MC_SITELOCAL(addr)) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

#ipv6_multicast?Boolean

Returns true for IPv6 multicast address (ff00::/8). It returns false otherwise.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 2124

static VALUE
addrinfo_ipv6_multicast_p(VALUE self)
{
    struct in6_addr *addr = extract_in6_addr(self);
    if (addr && IN6_IS_ADDR_MULTICAST(addr)) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

#ipv6_sitelocal?Boolean

Returns true for IPv6 site local address (ffc0::/10). It returns false otherwise.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 2148

static VALUE
addrinfo_ipv6_sitelocal_p(VALUE self)
{
    struct in6_addr *addr = extract_in6_addr(self);
    if (addr && IN6_IS_ADDR_SITELOCAL(addr)) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

#ipv6_to_ipv4Object

Returns IPv4 address of IPv4 mapped/compatible IPv6 address. It returns nil if self is not IPv4 mapped/compatible IPv6 address.

Addrinfo.ip("::192.0.2.3").ipv6_to_ipv4      #=> #<Addrinfo: 192.0.2.3>
Addrinfo.ip("::ffff:192.0.2.3").ipv6_to_ipv4 #=> #<Addrinfo: 192.0.2.3>
Addrinfo.ip("::1").ipv6_to_ipv4              #=> nil
Addrinfo.ip("192.0.2.3").ipv6_to_ipv4        #=> nil
Addrinfo.unix("/tmp/sock").ipv6_to_ipv4      #=> nil

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 2262

static VALUE
addrinfo_ipv6_to_ipv4(VALUE self)
{
    rb_addrinfo_t *rai = get_addrinfo(self);
    struct in6_addr *addr;
    int family = ai_get_afamily(rai);
    if (family != AF_INET6) return Qnil;
    addr = &rai->addr.in6.sin6_addr;
    if (IN6_IS_ADDR_V4MAPPED(addr) || IN6_IS_ADDR_V4COMPAT(addr)) {
        struct sockaddr_in sin4;
        INIT_SOCKADDR_IN(&sin4, sizeof(sin4));
        memcpy(&sin4.sin_addr, (char*)addr + sizeof(*addr) - sizeof(sin4.sin_addr), sizeof(sin4.sin_addr));
        return rsock_addrinfo_new((struct sockaddr *)&sin4, (socklen_t)sizeof(sin4),
                                  PF_INET, rai->socktype, rai->protocol,
                                  rai->canonname, rai->inspectname);
    }
    else {
        return Qnil;
    }
}

#ipv6_unique_local?Boolean

Returns true for IPv6 unique local address (fc00::/7, RFC4193). It returns false otherwise.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 2160

static VALUE
addrinfo_ipv6_unique_local_p(VALUE self)
{
    struct in6_addr *addr = extract_in6_addr(self);
    if (addr && IN6_IS_ADDR_UNIQUE_LOCAL(addr)) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

#ipv6_unspecified?Boolean

Returns true for IPv6 unspecified address (::). It returns false otherwise.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 2100

static VALUE
addrinfo_ipv6_unspecified_p(VALUE self)
{
    struct in6_addr *addr = extract_in6_addr(self);
    if (addr && IN6_IS_ADDR_UNSPECIFIED(addr)) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

#ipv6_v4compat?Boolean

Returns true for IPv4-compatible IPv6 address (::/80). It returns false otherwise.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 2184

static VALUE
addrinfo_ipv6_v4compat_p(VALUE self)
{
    struct in6_addr *addr = extract_in6_addr(self);
    if (addr && IN6_IS_ADDR_V4COMPAT(addr)) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

#ipv6_v4mapped?Boolean

Returns true for IPv4-mapped IPv6 address (::ffff:0:0/80). It returns false otherwise.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 2172

static VALUE
addrinfo_ipv6_v4mapped_p(VALUE self)
{
    struct in6_addr *addr = extract_in6_addr(self);
    if (addr && IN6_IS_ADDR_V4MAPPED(addr)) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

#listen(backlog = Socket::SOMAXCONN) ⇒ Object

creates a listening socket bound to self.


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# File 'lib/socket.rb', line 200

def listen(backlog=Socket::SOMAXCONN)
  sock = Socket.new(self.pfamily, self.socktype, self.protocol)
  begin
    sock.ipv6only! if self.ipv6?
    sock.setsockopt(:SOCKET, :REUSEADDR, 1)
    sock.bind(self)
    sock.listen(backlog)
  rescue Exception
    sock.close
    raise
  end
  if block_given?
    begin
      yield sock
    ensure
      sock.close if !sock.closed?
    end
  else
    sock
  end
end

#marshal_dumpObject

:nodoc:


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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 1513

static VALUE
addrinfo_mdump(VALUE self)
{
    rb_addrinfo_t *rai = get_addrinfo(self);
    VALUE sockaddr, afamily, pfamily, socktype, protocol, canonname, inspectname;
    int afamily_int = ai_get_afamily(rai);
    ID id;

    id = rsock_intern_protocol_family(rai->pfamily);
    if (id == 0)
        rb_raise(rb_eSocket, "unknown protocol family: %d", rai->pfamily);
    pfamily = rb_id2str(id);

    if (rai->socktype == 0)
        socktype = INT2FIX(0);
    else {
        id = rsock_intern_socktype(rai->socktype);
        if (id == 0)
            rb_raise(rb_eSocket, "unknown socktype: %d", rai->socktype);
        socktype = rb_id2str(id);
    }

    if (rai->protocol == 0)
        protocol = INT2FIX(0);
    else if (IS_IP_FAMILY(afamily_int)) {
        id = rsock_intern_ipproto(rai->protocol);
        if (id == 0)
            rb_raise(rb_eSocket, "unknown IP protocol: %d", rai->protocol);
        protocol = rb_id2str(id);
    }
    else {
        rb_raise(rb_eSocket, "unknown protocol: %d", rai->protocol);
    }

    canonname = rai->canonname;

    inspectname = rai->inspectname;

    id = rsock_intern_family(afamily_int);
    if (id == 0)
        rb_raise(rb_eSocket, "unknown address family: %d", afamily_int);
    afamily = rb_id2str(id);

    switch(afamily_int) {
#ifdef HAVE_SYS_UN_H
      case AF_UNIX:
      {
        struct sockaddr_un *su = &rai->addr.un;
        char *s, *e;
        s = su->sun_path;
        e = (char*)su + rai->sockaddr_len;
        while (s < e && *(e-1) == '\0')
            e--;
        sockaddr = rb_str_new(s, e-s);
        break;
      }
#endif

      default:
      {
        char hbuf[NI_MAXHOST], pbuf[NI_MAXSERV];
        int error;
        error = getnameinfo(&rai->addr.addr, rai->sockaddr_len,
                            hbuf, (socklen_t)sizeof(hbuf), pbuf, (socklen_t)sizeof(pbuf),
                            NI_NUMERICHOST|NI_NUMERICSERV);
        if (error) {
            rsock_raise_socket_error("getnameinfo", error);
        }
        sockaddr = rb_assoc_new(rb_str_new_cstr(hbuf), rb_str_new_cstr(pbuf));
        break;
      }
    }

    return rb_ary_new3(7, afamily, sockaddr, pfamily, socktype, protocol, canonname, inspectname);
}

#marshal_load(ary) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 1590

static VALUE
addrinfo_mload(VALUE self, VALUE ary)
{
    VALUE v;
    VALUE canonname, inspectname;
    int afamily, pfamily, socktype, protocol;
    union_sockaddr ss;
    socklen_t len;
    rb_addrinfo_t *rai;

    if (check_addrinfo(self))
        rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "already initialized socket address");

    ary = rb_convert_type(ary, T_ARRAY, "Array", "to_ary");

    v = rb_ary_entry(ary, 0);
    StringValue(v);
    if (rsock_family_to_int(RSTRING_PTR(v), RSTRING_LEN(v), &afamily) == -1)
        rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "unexpected address family");

    v = rb_ary_entry(ary, 2);
    StringValue(v);
    if (rsock_family_to_int(RSTRING_PTR(v), RSTRING_LEN(v), &pfamily) == -1)
        rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "unexpected protocol family");

    v = rb_ary_entry(ary, 3);
    if (v == INT2FIX(0))
        socktype = 0;
    else {
        StringValue(v);
        if (rsock_socktype_to_int(RSTRING_PTR(v), RSTRING_LEN(v), &socktype) == -1)
            rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "unexpected socktype");
    }

    v = rb_ary_entry(ary, 4);
    if (v == INT2FIX(0))
        protocol = 0;
    else {
        StringValue(v);
        if (IS_IP_FAMILY(afamily)) {
            if (rsock_ipproto_to_int(RSTRING_PTR(v), RSTRING_LEN(v), &protocol) == -1)
                rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "unexpected protocol");
        }
        else {
            rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "unexpected protocol");
        }
    }

    v = rb_ary_entry(ary, 5);
    if (NIL_P(v))
        canonname = Qnil;
    else {
        StringValue(v);
        canonname = v;
    }

    v = rb_ary_entry(ary, 6);
    if (NIL_P(v))
        inspectname = Qnil;
    else {
        StringValue(v);
        inspectname = v;
    }

    v = rb_ary_entry(ary, 1);
    switch(afamily) {
#ifdef HAVE_SYS_UN_H
      case AF_UNIX:
      {
        struct sockaddr_un uaddr;
        INIT_SOCKADDR_UN(&uaddr, sizeof(struct sockaddr_un));

        StringValue(v);
        if (sizeof(uaddr.sun_path) < (size_t)RSTRING_LEN(v))
            rb_raise(rb_eSocket,
                "too long AF_UNIX path (%"PRIuSIZE" bytes given but %"PRIuSIZE" bytes max)",
                (size_t)RSTRING_LEN(v), sizeof(uaddr.sun_path));
        memcpy(uaddr.sun_path, RSTRING_PTR(v), RSTRING_LEN(v));
        len = (socklen_t)sizeof(uaddr);
        memcpy(&ss, &uaddr, len);
        break;
      }
#endif

      default:
      {
        VALUE pair = rb_convert_type(v, T_ARRAY, "Array", "to_ary");
        struct rb_addrinfo *res;
        int flags = AI_NUMERICHOST;
#ifdef AI_NUMERICSERV
        flags |= AI_NUMERICSERV;
#endif
        res = call_getaddrinfo(rb_ary_entry(pair, 0), rb_ary_entry(pair, 1),
                               INT2NUM(pfamily), INT2NUM(socktype), INT2NUM(protocol),
                               INT2NUM(flags), 1);

        len = res->ai->ai_addrlen;
        memcpy(&ss, res->ai->ai_addr, res->ai->ai_addrlen);
        rb_freeaddrinfo(res);
        break;
      }
    }

    DATA_PTR(self) = rai = alloc_addrinfo();
    init_addrinfo(rai, &ss.addr, len,
                  pfamily, socktype, protocol,
                  canonname, inspectname);
    return self;
}

#pfamilyInteger

returns the protocol family as an integer.

Addrinfo.tcp("localhost", 80).pfamily == Socket::PF_INET #=> true

Returns:

  • (Integer)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 1725

static VALUE
addrinfo_pfamily(VALUE self)
{
    rb_addrinfo_t *rai = get_addrinfo(self);
    return INT2NUM(rai->pfamily);
}

#protocolInteger

returns the socket type as an integer.

Addrinfo.tcp("localhost", 80).protocol == Socket::IPPROTO_TCP #=> true

Returns:

  • (Integer)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 1757

static VALUE
addrinfo_protocol(VALUE self)
{
    rb_addrinfo_t *rai = get_addrinfo(self);
    return INT2NUM(rai->protocol);
}

#socktypeInteger

returns the socket type as an integer.

Addrinfo.tcp("localhost", 80).socktype == Socket::SOCK_STREAM #=> true

Returns:

  • (Integer)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 1741

static VALUE
addrinfo_socktype(VALUE self)
{
    rb_addrinfo_t *rai = get_addrinfo(self);
    return INT2NUM(rai->socktype);
}

#to_sockaddrString #to_sString

returns the socket address as packed struct sockaddr string.

Addrinfo.tcp("localhost", 80).to_sockaddr
#=> "\x02\x00\x00P\x7F\x00\x00\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"

Overloads:

  • #to_sockaddrString

    Returns:

    • (String)
  • #to_sString

    Returns:

    • (String)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 1775

static VALUE
addrinfo_to_sockaddr(VALUE self)
{
    rb_addrinfo_t *rai = get_addrinfo(self);
    VALUE ret;
    ret = rb_str_new((char*)&rai->addr, rai->sockaddr_len);
    OBJ_INFECT(ret, self);
    return ret;
}

#to_sockaddrString #to_sString

returns the socket address as packed struct sockaddr string.

Addrinfo.tcp("localhost", 80).to_sockaddr
#=> "\x02\x00\x00P\x7F\x00\x00\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"

Overloads:

  • #to_sockaddrString

    Returns:

    • (String)
  • #to_sString

    Returns:

    • (String)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 1775

static VALUE
addrinfo_to_sockaddr(VALUE self)
{
    rb_addrinfo_t *rai = get_addrinfo(self);
    VALUE ret;
    ret = rb_str_new((char*)&rai->addr, rai->sockaddr_len);
    OBJ_INFECT(ret, self);
    return ret;
}

#unix?Boolean

returns true if addrinfo is UNIX address. returns false otherwise.

Addrinfo.tcp("127.0.0.1", 80).unix? #=> false
Addrinfo.tcp("::1", 80).unix?       #=> false
Addrinfo.unix("/tmp/sock").unix?    #=> true

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 1881

static VALUE
addrinfo_unix_p(VALUE self)
{
    rb_addrinfo_t *rai = get_addrinfo(self);
#ifdef AF_UNIX
    return ai_get_afamily(rai) == AF_UNIX ? Qtrue : Qfalse;
#else
    return Qfalse;
#endif
}

#unix_pathObject

Returns the socket path as a string.

Addrinfo.unix("/tmp/sock").unix_path       #=> "/tmp/sock"

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# File 'raddrinfo.c', line 2294

static VALUE
addrinfo_unix_path(VALUE self)
{
    rb_addrinfo_t *rai = get_addrinfo(self);
    int family = ai_get_afamily(rai);
    struct sockaddr_un *addr;
    char *s, *e;

    if (family != AF_UNIX)
	rb_raise(rb_eSocket, "need AF_UNIX address");

    addr = &rai->addr.un;

    s = addr->sun_path;
    e = (char*)addr + rai->sockaddr_len;
    if (e < s)
        rb_raise(rb_eSocket, "too short AF_UNIX address: %"PRIuSIZE" bytes given for minimum %"PRIuSIZE" bytes.",
            (size_t)rai->sockaddr_len, (size_t)(s - (char *)addr));
    if (addr->sun_path + sizeof(addr->sun_path) < e)
        rb_raise(rb_eSocket,
            "too long AF_UNIX path (%"PRIuSIZE" bytes given but %"PRIuSIZE" bytes max)",
            (size_t)(e - addr->sun_path), sizeof(addr->sun_path));
    while (s < e && *(e-1) == '\0')
        e--;
    return rb_str_new(s, e-s);
}