Class: Nokogiri::XML::Node

Inherits:
Object
  • Object
show all
Includes:
Enumerable, ClassResolver, PP::Node, Searchable
Defined in:
lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb,
lib/nokogiri/xml/node/save_options.rb,
ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c

Overview

Nokogiri::XML::Node is the primary API you'll use to interact with your Document.

Attributes

A Nokogiri::XML::Node may be treated similarly to a hash with regard to attributes. For example:

node = Nokogiri::XML::DocumentFragment.parse("<a href='#foo' id='link'>link</a>").at_css("a")
node.to_html # => "<a href=\"#foo\" id=\"link\">link</a>"
node['href'] # => "#foo"
node.keys # => ["href", "id"]
node.values # => ["#foo", "link"]
node['class'] = 'green' # => "green"
node.to_html # => "<a href=\"#foo\" id=\"link\" class=\"green\">link</a>"

See the method group entitled [email protected]+With+Node+Attributes for the full set of methods.

Navigation

Nokogiri::XML::Node also has methods that let you move around your tree:

#parent, #children, #next, #previous

Navigate up, down, or through siblings.

See the method group entitled [email protected]+Document+Structure for the full set of methods.

Serialization

When printing or otherwise emitting a document or a node (and its subtree), there are a few methods you might want to use:

#content, #text, #inner_text, #to_str

These methods will all **emit plaintext**, meaning that entities will be replaced (e.g., &lt; will be replaced with <), meaning that any sanitizing will likely be un-done in the output.

#to_s, #to_xml, #to_html, #inner_html

These methods will all **emit properly-escaped markup**, meaning that it's suitable for consumption by browsers, parsers, etc.

See the method group entitled [email protected]+and+Generating+Output for the full set of methods.

Searching

You may search this node's subtree using methods like #xpath and #css.

See the method group entitled [email protected]+via+XPath+or+CSS+Queries for the full set of methods.

Defined Under Namespace

Classes: SaveOptions

Constant Summary collapse

ELEMENT_NODE =

Element node type, see Nokogiri::XML::Node#element?

1
ATTRIBUTE_NODE =

Attribute node type

2
TEXT_NODE =

Text node type, see Nokogiri::XML::Node#text?

3
CDATA_SECTION_NODE =

CDATA node type, see Nokogiri::XML::Node#cdata?

4
ENTITY_REF_NODE =

Entity reference node type

5
ENTITY_NODE =

Entity node type

6
PI_NODE =

PI node type

7
COMMENT_NODE =

Comment node type, see Nokogiri::XML::Node#comment?

8
DOCUMENT_NODE =

Document node type, see Nokogiri::XML::Node#xml?

9
DOCUMENT_TYPE_NODE =

Document type node type

10
DOCUMENT_FRAG_NODE =

Document fragment node type

11
NOTATION_NODE =

Notation node type

12
HTML_DOCUMENT_NODE =

HTML document node type, see Nokogiri::XML::Node#html?

13
DTD_NODE =

DTD node type

14
ELEMENT_DECL =

Element declaration type

15
ATTRIBUTE_DECL =

Attribute declaration type

16
ENTITY_DECL =

Entity declaration type

17
NAMESPACE_DECL =

Namespace declaration type

18
XINCLUDE_START =

XInclude start type

19
XINCLUDE_END =

XInclude end type

20
DOCB_DOCUMENT_NODE =

DOCB document node type

21

Constants included from ClassResolver

ClassResolver::VALID_NAMESPACES

Constants included from Searchable

Searchable::LOOKS_LIKE_XPATH

Constants included from PP::Node

PP::Node::COLLECTIONS

Class Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Methods included from ClassResolver

#related_class

Methods included from Searchable

#>, #at, #at_css, #at_xpath, #css, #search, #xpath

Methods included from PP::Node

#inspect, #pretty_print

Constructor Details

#initialize(name, document) ⇒ Node

:call-seq:

new(name, document) -> Nokogiri::XML::Node
new(name, document) { |node| ... } -> Nokogiri::XML::Node

Create a new node with name that belongs to document.

If you intend to add a node to a document tree, it's likely that you will prefer one of the Nokogiri::XML::Node methods like #add_child, #add_next_sibling, #replace, etc. which will both create an element (or subtree) and place it in the document tree.

Another alternative, if you are concerned about performance, is Nokogiri::XML::Document#create_element which accepts additional arguments for contents or attributes but (like this method) avoids parsing markup.

Parameters
  • name (String)

  • document (Nokogiri::XML::Document) The document to which the the returned node will belong.

Yields

Nokogiri::XML::Node

Returns

Nokogiri::XML::Node


126
127
128
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 126

def initialize(name, document)
  # This is intentionally empty, and sets the method signature for subclasses.
end

Class Method Details

.new(*args) ⇒ Object

:nodoc: documented in lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb


2045
2046
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061
2062
2063
2064
2065
2066
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071
2072
2073
2074
2075
2076
2077
2078
2079
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 2045

static VALUE
rb_xml_node_new(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
  xmlNodePtr c_document_node;
  xmlNodePtr c_node;
  VALUE rb_name;
  VALUE rb_document_node;
  VALUE rest;
  VALUE rb_node;

  rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "2*", &rb_name, &rb_document_node, &rest);

  if (!rb_obj_is_kind_of(rb_document_node, cNokogiriXmlNode)) {
    rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "document must be a Nokogiri::XML::Node");
  }
  if (!rb_obj_is_kind_of(rb_document_node, cNokogiriXmlDocument)) {
    // TODO: deprecate allowing Node
    NOKO_WARN_DEPRECATION("Passing a Node as the second parameter to Node.new is deprecated. Please pass a Document instead, or prefer an alternative constructor like Node#add_child. This will become an error in a future release of Nokogiri.");
  }
  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(rb_document_node, xmlNode, c_document_node);

  c_node = xmlNewNode(NULL, (xmlChar *)StringValueCStr(rb_name));
  c_node->doc = c_document_node->doc;
  noko_xml_document_pin_node(c_node);

  rb_node = noko_xml_node_wrap(
              klass == cNokogiriXmlNode ? (VALUE)NULL : klass,
              c_node
            );
  rb_obj_call_init(rb_node, argc, argv);

  if (rb_block_given_p()) { rb_yield(rb_node); }

  return rb_node;
}

Instance Method Details

#<<(node_or_tags) ⇒ Object

Add node_or_tags as a child of this Node.

node_or_tags can be a Nokogiri::XML::Node, a ::DocumentFragment, a ::NodeSet, or a String containing markup.

Returns self, to support chaining of calls (e.g., root << child1 << child2)

Also see related method add_child.


256
257
258
259
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 256

def <<(node_or_tags)
  add_child(node_or_tags)
  self
end

#<=>(other) ⇒ Object

Compare two Node objects with respect to their Document. Nodes from different documents cannot be compared.


1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1256

def <=>(other)
  return nil unless other.is_a?(Nokogiri::XML::Node)
  return nil unless document == other.document

  compare(other)
end

#==(other) ⇒ Object

Test to see if this Node is equal to other


1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1246

def ==(other)
  return false unless other
  return false unless other.respond_to?(:pointer_id)

  pointer_id == other.pointer_id
end

#[](name) ⇒ Object Also known as: get_attribute, attr

:call-seq: [](name) → (String, nil)

Fetch an attribute from this node.

⚠ Note that attributes with namespaces cannot be accessed with this method. To access namespaced attributes, use #attribute_with_ns.

Returns

(String, nil) value of the attribute name, or nil if no matching attribute exists

Example

doc = Nokogiri::XML("<root><child size='large' class='big wide tall'/></root>")
child = doc.at_css("child")
child["size"] # => "large"
child["class"] # => "big wide tall"

Example: Namespaced attributes will not be returned.

⚠ Note namespaced attributes may be accessed with #attribute or #attribute_with_ns

doc = Nokogiri::XML(<<~EOF)
  <root xmlns:width='http://example.com/widths'>
    <child width:size='broad'/>
  </root>
EOF
doc.at_css("child")["size"] # => nil
doc.at_css("child").attribute("size").value # => "broad"
doc.at_css("child").attribute_with_ns("size", "http://example.com/widths").value
# => "broad"

512
513
514
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 512

def [](name)
  get(name.to_s)
end

#[]=(name, value) ⇒ Object Also known as: set_attribute

:call-seq: []=(name, value) → value

Update the attribute name to value, or create the attribute if it does not exist.

⚠ Note that attributes with namespaces cannot be accessed with this method. To access namespaced attributes for update, use #attribute_with_ns. To add a namespaced attribute, see the example below.

Returns

value

Example

doc = Nokogiri::XML("<root><child/></root>")
child = doc.at_css("child")
child["size"] = "broad"
child.to_html
# => "<child size=\"broad\"></child>"

Example: Add a namespaced attribute.

doc = Nokogiri::XML(<<~EOF)
  <root xmlns:width='http://example.com/widths'>
    <child/>
  </root>
EOF
child = doc.at_css("child")
child["size"] = "broad"
ns = doc.root.namespace_definitions.find { |ns| ns.prefix == "width" }
child.attribute("size").namespace = ns
doc.to_html
# => "<root xmlns:width=\"http://example.com/widths\">\n" +
#    "  <child width:size=\"broad\"></child>\n" +
#    "</root>\n"

550
551
552
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 550

def []=(name, value)
  set(name.to_s, value.to_s)
end

#accept(visitor) ⇒ Object

Accept a visitor. This method calls “visit” on visitor with self.


1240
1241
1242
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1240

def accept(visitor)
  visitor.visit(self)
end

#add_child(node_or_tags) ⇒ Object

Add node_or_tags as a child of this Node.

node_or_tags can be a Nokogiri::XML::Node, a ::DocumentFragment, a ::NodeSet, or a String containing markup.

Returns the reparented node (if node_or_tags is a Node), or NodeSet (if node_or_tags is a DocumentFragment, NodeSet, or String).

Also see related method <<.


148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 148

def add_child(node_or_tags)
  node_or_tags = coerce(node_or_tags)
  if node_or_tags.is_a?(XML::NodeSet)
    node_or_tags.each { |n| add_child_node_and_reparent_attrs(n) }
  else
    add_child_node_and_reparent_attrs(node_or_tags)
  end
  node_or_tags
end

#add_class(names) ⇒ Object

:call-seq: add_class(names) → self

Ensure HTML CSS classes are present on self. Any CSS classes in names that already exist in the “class” attribute are not added. Note that any existing duplicates in the “class” attribute are not removed. Compare with #append_class.

This is a convenience function and is equivalent to:

node.kwattr_add("class", names)

See related: #kwattr_add, #classes, #append_class, #remove_class

Parameters
  • names (String, Array<String>)

    CSS class names to be added to the Node's “class” attribute. May be a string containing whitespace-delimited names, or an Array of String names. Any class names already present will not be added. Any class names not present will be added. If no “class” attribute exists, one is created.

Returns

self (Node) for ease of chaining method calls.

Example: Ensure that the node has CSS class “section”

node                      # => <div></div>
node.add_class("section") # => <div class="section"></div>
node.add_class("section") # => <div class="section"></div> # duplicate not added

Example: Ensure that the node has CSS classes “section” and “header”, via a String argument

Note that the CSS class “section” is not added because it is already present. Note also that the pre-existing duplicate CSS class “section” is not removed.

node                             # => <div class="section section"></div>
node.add_class("section header") # => <div class="section section header"></div>

Example: Ensure that the node has CSS classes “section” and “header”, via an Array argument

node                                  # => <div></div>
node.add_class(["section", "header"]) # => <div class="section header"></div>

715
716
717
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 715

def add_class(names)
  kwattr_add("class", names)
end

#add_namespace_definition(rb_prefix, rb_href) ⇒ Object Also known as: add_namespace

:call-seq:

add_namespace_definition(prefix, href) → Nokogiri::XML::Namespace
add_namespace(prefix, href) → Nokogiri::XML::Namespace

:category: Manipulating Document Structure

Adds a namespace definition to this node with prefix using href value, as if this node had included an attribute “xmlns:prefix=href”.

A default namespace definition for this node can be added by passing nil for prefix.

Parameters
Returns

The new Nokogiri::XML::Namespace

Example: adding a non-default namespace definition

doc = Nokogiri::XML("<store><inventory></inventory></store>")
inventory = doc.at_css("inventory")
inventory.add_namespace_definition("automobile", "http://alices-autos.com/")
inventory.add_namespace_definition("bicycle", "http://bobs-bikes.com/")
inventory.add_child("<automobile:tire>Michelin model XGV, size 75R</automobile:tire>")
doc.to_xml
# => "<?xml version=\"1.0\"?>\n" +
#    "<store>\n" +
#    "  <inventory xmlns:automobile=\"http://alices-autos.com/\" xmlns:bicycle=\"http://bobs-bikes.com/\">\n" +
#    "    <automobile:tire>Michelin model XGV, size 75R</automobile:tire>\n" +
#    "  </inventory>\n" +
#    "</store>\n"

Example: adding a default namespace definition

doc = Nokogiri::XML("<store><inventory><tire>Michelin model XGV, size 75R</tire></inventory></store>")
doc.at_css("tire").add_namespace_definition(nil, "http://bobs-bikes.com/")
doc.to_xml
# => "<?xml version=\"1.0\"?>\n" +
#    "<store>\n" +
#    "  <inventory>\n" +
#    "    <tire xmlns=\"http://bobs-bikes.com/\">Michelin model XGV, size 75R</tire>\n" +
#    "  </inventory>\n" +
#    "</store>\n"

452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 452

static VALUE
rb_xml_node_add_namespace_definition(VALUE rb_node, VALUE rb_prefix, VALUE rb_href)
{
  xmlNodePtr c_node, element;
  xmlNsPtr c_namespace;
  const xmlChar *c_prefix = (const xmlChar *)(NIL_P(rb_prefix) ? NULL : StringValueCStr(rb_prefix));

  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(rb_node, xmlNode, c_node);
  element = c_node ;

  c_namespace = xmlSearchNs(c_node->doc, c_node, c_prefix);

  if (!c_namespace) {
    if (c_node->type != XML_ELEMENT_NODE) {
      element = c_node->parent;
    }
    c_namespace = xmlNewNs(element, (const xmlChar *)StringValueCStr(rb_href), c_prefix);
  }

  if (!c_namespace) {
    return Qnil ;
  }

  if (NIL_P(rb_prefix) || c_node != element) {
    xmlSetNs(c_node, c_namespace);
  }

  return noko_xml_namespace_wrap(c_namespace, c_node->doc);
}

#add_next_sibling(node_or_tags) ⇒ Object Also known as: next=

Insert node_or_tags after this Node (as a sibling).

node_or_tags can be a Nokogiri::XML::Node, a ::DocumentFragment, a ::NodeSet, or a String containing markup.

Returns the reparented node (if node_or_tags is a Node), or NodeSet (if node_or_tags is a DocumentFragment, NodeSet, or String).

Also see related method after.

Raises:

  • (ArgumentError)

288
289
290
291
292
293
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 288

def add_next_sibling(node_or_tags)
  raise ArgumentError,
    "A document may not have multiple root nodes." if parent&.document? && !(node_or_tags.comment? || node_or_tags.processing_instruction?)

  add_sibling(:next, node_or_tags)
end

#add_previous_sibling(node_or_tags) ⇒ Object Also known as: previous=

Insert node_or_tags before this Node (as a sibling).

node_or_tags can be a Nokogiri::XML::Node, a ::DocumentFragment, a ::NodeSet, or a String containing markup.

Returns the reparented node (if node_or_tags is a Node), or NodeSet (if node_or_tags is a DocumentFragment, NodeSet, or String).

Also see related method before.

Raises:

  • (ArgumentError)

271
272
273
274
275
276
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 271

def add_previous_sibling(node_or_tags)
  raise ArgumentError,
    "A document may not have multiple root nodes." if parent&.document? && !(node_or_tags.comment? || node_or_tags.processing_instruction?)

  add_sibling(:previous, node_or_tags)
end

#after(node_or_tags) ⇒ Object

Insert node_or_tags after this node (as a sibling).

node_or_tags can be a Nokogiri::XML::Node, a Nokogiri::XML::DocumentFragment, or a String containing markup.

Returns self, to support chaining of calls.

Also see related method add_next_sibling.


318
319
320
321
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 318

def after(node_or_tags)
  add_next_sibling(node_or_tags)
  self
end

#ancestors(selector = nil) ⇒ Object

Get a list of ancestor Node for this Node. If selector is given, the ancestors must match selector


1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1209

def ancestors(selector = nil)
  return NodeSet.new(document) unless respond_to?(:parent)
  return NodeSet.new(document) unless parent

  parents = [parent]

  while parents.last.respond_to?(:parent)
    break unless (ctx_parent = parents.last.parent)

    parents << ctx_parent
  end

  return NodeSet.new(document, parents) unless selector

  root = parents.last
  search_results = root.search(selector)

  NodeSet.new(document, parents.find_all do |parent|
    search_results.include?(parent)
  end)
end

#append_class(names) ⇒ Object

:call-seq: append_class(names) → self

Add HTML CSS classes to self, regardless of duplication. Compare with #add_class.

This is a convenience function and is equivalent to:

node.kwattr_append("class", names)

See related: #kwattr_append, #classes, #add_class, #remove_class

Parameters
  • names (String, Array<String>)

    CSS class names to be appended to the Node's “class” attribute. May be a string containing whitespace-delimited names, or an Array of String names. All class names passed in will be appended to the “class” attribute even if they are already present in the attribute value. If no “class” attribute exists, one is created.

Returns

self (Node) for ease of chaining method calls.

Example: Append “section” to the node's CSS “class” attribute

node                         # => <div></div>
node.append_class("section") # => <div class="section"></div>
node.append_class("section") # => <div class="section section"></div> # duplicate added!

Example: Append “section” and “header” to the noded's CSS “class” attribute, via a String argument

Note that the CSS class “section” is appended even though it is already present

node                                # => <div class="section section"></div>
node.append_class("section header") # => <div class="section section section header"></div>

Example: Append “section” and “header” to the node's CSS “class” attribute, via an Array argument

node                                     # => <div></div>
node.append_class(["section", "header"]) # => <div class="section header"></div>
node.append_class(["section", "header"]) # => <div class="section header section header"></div>

759
760
761
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 759

def append_class(names)
  kwattr_append("class", names)
end

#attribute(name) ⇒ Object

:call-seq: attribute(name) → Nokogiri::XML::Attr

:category: Working With Node Attributes

Returns

Attribute (Nokogiri::XML::Attr) belonging to this node with name name.

⚠ Note that attribute namespaces are ignored and only the simple (non-namespace-prefixed) name is used to find a matching attribute. In case of a simple name collision, only one of the matching attributes will be returned. In this case, you will need to use #attribute_with_ns.

Example:

doc = Nokogiri::XML("<root><child size='large' class='big wide tall'/></root>")
child = doc.at_css("child")
child.attribute("size") # => #<Nokogiri::XML::Attr:0x550 name="size" value="large">
child.attribute("class") # => #<Nokogiri::XML::Attr:0x564 name="class" value="big wide tall">

Example showing that namespaced attributes will not be returned:

⚠ Note that only one of the two matching attributes is returned.

doc = Nokogiri::XML(<<~EOF)
  <root xmlns:width='http://example.com/widths'
        xmlns:height='http://example.com/heights'>
    <child width:size='broad' height:size='tall'/>
  </root>
EOF
doc.at_css("child").attribute("size")
# => #(Attr:0x550 {
#      name = "size",
#      namespace = #(Namespace:0x564 {
#        prefix = "width",
#        href = "http://example.com/widths"
#        }),
#      value = "broad"
#      })

521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 521

static VALUE
rb_xml_node_attribute(VALUE self, VALUE name)
{
  xmlNodePtr node;
  xmlAttrPtr prop;
  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);
  prop = xmlHasProp(node, (xmlChar *)StringValueCStr(name));

  if (! prop) { return Qnil; }
  return noko_xml_node_wrap(Qnil, (xmlNodePtr)prop);
}

#attribute_nodesObject

:call-seq: attribute_nodes() → Array<Nokogiri::XML::Attr>

:category: Working With Node Attributes

Returns

Attributes (an Array of Nokogiri::XML::Attr) belonging to this node.

Note that this is the preferred alternative to #attributes when the simple (non-namespace-prefixed) attribute names may collide.

Example:

Contrast this with the colliding-name example from #attributes.

doc = Nokogiri::XML(<<~EOF)
  <root xmlns:width='http://example.com/widths'
        xmlns:height='http://example.com/heights'>
    <child width:size='broad' height:size='tall'/>
  </root>
EOF
doc.at_css("child").attribute_nodes
# => [#(Attr:0x550 {
#       name = "size",
#       namespace = #(Namespace:0x564 {
#         prefix = "width",
#         href = "http://example.com/widths"
#         }),
#       value = "broad"
#       }),
#     #(Attr:0x578 {
#       name = "size",
#       namespace = #(Namespace:0x58c {
#         prefix = "height",
#         href = "http://example.com/heights"
#         }),
#       value = "tall"
#       })]

572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 572

static VALUE
rb_xml_node_attribute_nodes(VALUE rb_node)
{
  xmlNodePtr c_node;

  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(rb_node, xmlNode, c_node);

  return noko_xml_node_attrs(c_node);
}

#attribute_with_ns(name, namespace) ⇒ Object

:call-seq: attribute_with_ns(name, namespace) → Nokogiri::XML::Attr

:category: Working With Node Attributes

Returns

Attribute (Nokogiri::XML::Attr) belonging to this node with matching name and namespace.

  • name (String): the simple (non-namespace-prefixed) name of the attribute

  • namespace (String): the URI of the attribute's namespace

See related: #attribute

Example:

doc = Nokogiri::XML(<<~EOF)
  <root xmlns:width='http://example.com/widths'
        xmlns:height='http://example.com/heights'>
    <child width:size='broad' height:size='tall'/>
  </root>
EOF
doc.at_css("child").attribute_with_ns("size", "http://example.com/widths")
# => #(Attr:0x550 {
#      name = "size",
#      namespace = #(Namespace:0x564 {
#        prefix = "width",
#        href = "http://example.com/widths"
#        }),
#      value = "broad"
#      })
doc.at_css("child").attribute_with_ns("size", "http://example.com/heights")
# => #(Attr:0x578 {
#      name = "size",
#      namespace = #(Namespace:0x58c {
#        prefix = "height",
#        href = "http://example.com/heights"
#        }),
#      value = "tall"
#      })

624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 624

static VALUE
rb_xml_node_attribute_with_ns(VALUE self, VALUE name, VALUE namespace)
{
  xmlNodePtr node;
  xmlAttrPtr prop;
  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);
  prop = xmlHasNsProp(node, (xmlChar *)StringValueCStr(name),
                      NIL_P(namespace) ? NULL : (xmlChar *)StringValueCStr(namespace));

  if (! prop) { return Qnil; }
  return noko_xml_node_wrap(Qnil, (xmlNodePtr)prop);
}

#attributesObject

:call-seq: attributes() → Hash<String ⇒ Nokogiri::XML::Attr>

Fetch this node's attributes.

⚠ Because the keys do not include any namespace information for the attribute, in case of a simple name collision, not all attributes will be returned. In this case, you will need to use #attribute_nodes.

Returns

Hash containing attributes belonging to self. The hash keys are String attribute names (without the namespace), and the hash values are Nokogiri::XML::Attr.

Example with no namespaces:

doc = Nokogiri::XML("<root><child size='large' class='big wide tall'/></root>")
doc.at_css("child").attributes
# => {"size"=>#(Attr:0x550 { name = "size", value = "large" }),
#     "class"=>#(Attr:0x564 { name = "class", value = "big wide tall" })}

Example with a namespace:

doc = Nokogiri::XML("<root xmlns:desc='http://example.com/sizes'><child desc:size='large'/></root>")
doc.at_css("child").attributes
# => {"size"=>
#      #(Attr:0x550 {
#        name = "size",
#        namespace = #(Namespace:0x564 {
#          prefix = "desc",
#          href = "http://example.com/sizes"
#          }),
#        value = "large"
#        })}

Example with an attribute name collision:

⚠ Note that only one of the attributes is returned in the Hash.

doc = Nokogiri::XML(<<~EOF)
  <root xmlns:width='http://example.com/widths'
        xmlns:height='http://example.com/heights'>
    <child width:size='broad' height:size='tall'/>
  </root>
EOF
doc.at_css("child").attributes
# => {"size"=>
#      #(Attr:0x550 {
#        name = "size",
#        namespace = #(Namespace:0x564 {
#          prefix = "height",
#          href = "http://example.com/heights"
#          }),
#        value = "tall"
#        })}

609
610
611
612
613
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 609

def attributes
  attribute_nodes.each_with_object({}) do |node, hash|
    hash[node.node_name] = node
  end
end

#before(node_or_tags) ⇒ Object

Insert node_or_tags before this node (as a sibling).

node_or_tags can be a Nokogiri::XML::Node, a ::DocumentFragment, a ::NodeSet, or a String containing markup.

Returns self, to support chaining of calls.

Also see related method add_previous_sibling.


304
305
306
307
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 304

def before(node_or_tags)
  add_previous_sibling(node_or_tags)
  self
end

#blank?Boolean

Returns

true if the node is an empty or whitespace-only text or cdata node, else false.

Example:

Nokogiri("<root><child/></root>").root.child.blank? # => false
Nokogiri("<root>\t \n</root>").root.child.blank? # => true
Nokogiri("<root><![CDATA[\t \n]]></root>").root.child.blank? # => true
Nokogiri("<root>not-blank</root>").root.child
  .tap { |n| n.content = "" }.blank # => true

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

652
653
654
655
656
657
658
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 652

static VALUE
rb_xml_node_blank_eh(VALUE self)
{
  xmlNodePtr node;
  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);
  return (1 == xmlIsBlankNode(node)) ? Qtrue : Qfalse ;
}

#canonicalize(mode = XML::XML_C14N_1_0, inclusive_namespaces = nil, with_comments = false) ⇒ Object


1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1398

def canonicalize(mode = XML::XML_C14N_1_0, inclusive_namespaces = nil, with_comments = false)
  c14n_root = self
  document.canonicalize(mode, inclusive_namespaces, with_comments) do |node, parent|
    tn = node.is_a?(XML::Node) ? node : parent
    tn == c14n_root || tn.ancestors.include?(c14n_root)
  end
end

#cdata?Boolean

Returns true if this is a CDATA

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1130
1131
1132
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1130

def cdata?
  type == CDATA_SECTION_NODE
end

#childObject

:call-seq: child() → Nokogiri::XML::Node

:category: Traversing Document Structure

Returns

First of this node's children, or nil if there are no children

This is a convenience method and is equivalent to:

node.children.first

See related: #children


674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 674

static VALUE
rb_xml_node_child(VALUE self)
{
  xmlNodePtr node, child;
  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);

  child = node->children;
  if (!child) { return Qnil; }

  return noko_xml_node_wrap(Qnil, child);
}

#childrenObject

:call-seq: children() → Nokogiri::XML::NodeSet

:category: Traversing Document Structure

Returns

Nokogiri::XML::NodeSet containing this node's children.


694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 694

static VALUE
rb_xml_node_children(VALUE self)
{
  xmlNodePtr node;
  xmlNodePtr child;
  xmlNodeSetPtr set;
  VALUE document;
  VALUE node_set;

  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);

  child = node->children;
  set = xmlXPathNodeSetCreate(child);

  document = DOC_RUBY_OBJECT(node->doc);

  if (!child) { return noko_xml_node_set_wrap(set, document); }

  child = child->next;
  while (NULL != child) {
    xmlXPathNodeSetAddUnique(set, child);
    child = child->next;
  }

  node_set = noko_xml_node_set_wrap(set, document);

  return node_set;
}

#children=(node_or_tags) ⇒ Object

Set the content for this Node node_or_tags

node_or_tags can be a Nokogiri::XML::Node, a Nokogiri::XML::DocumentFragment, or a String containing markup.

Also see related method inner_html=


349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 349

def children=(node_or_tags)
  node_or_tags = coerce(node_or_tags)
  children.unlink
  if node_or_tags.is_a?(XML::NodeSet)
    node_or_tags.each { |n| add_child_node_and_reparent_attrs(n) }
  else
    add_child_node_and_reparent_attrs(node_or_tags)
  end
end

#classesObject

:call-seq: classes() → Array<String>

Fetch CSS class names of a Node.

This is a convenience function and is equivalent to:

node.kwattr_values("class")

See related: #kwattr_values, #add_class, #append_class, #remove_class

Returns

The CSS classes (Array of String) present in the Node's “class” attribute. If the attribute is empty or non-existent, the return value is an empty array.

Example

node         # => <div class="section title header"></div>
node.classes # => ["section", "title", "header"]

669
670
671
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 669

def classes
  kwattr_values("class")
end

#comment?Boolean

Returns true if this is a Comment

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1125
1126
1127
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1125

def comment?
  type == COMMENT_NODE
end

#contentObject Also known as: inner_text, text, to_str

:call-seq:

content() → String
inner_text() → String
text() → String
to_str() → String
Returns

Contents of all the text nodes in this node's subtree, concatenated together into a single String.

⚠ Note that entities will always be expanded in the returned String.

See related: #inner_html

Example of how entities are handled:

Note that &lt; becomes < in the returned String.

doc = Nokogiri::XML.fragment("<child>a &lt; b</child>")
doc.at_css("child").content
# => "a < b"

Example of how a subtree is handled:

Note that the <span> tags are omitted and only the text node contents are returned, concatenated into a single string.

doc = Nokogiri::XML.fragment("<child><span>first</span> <span>second</span></child>")
doc.at_css("child").content
# => "first second"

756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 756

static VALUE
rb_xml_node_content(VALUE self)
{
  xmlNodePtr node;
  xmlChar *content;

  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);

  content = xmlNodeGetContent(node);
  if (content) {
    VALUE rval = NOKOGIRI_STR_NEW2(content);
    xmlFree(content);
    return rval;
  }
  return Qnil;
}

#content=(string) ⇒ Object

Set the Node's content to a Text node containing string. The string gets XML escaped, not interpreted as markup.


411
412
413
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 411

def content=(string)
  self.native_content = encode_special_chars(string.to_s)
end

#create_external_subset(name, external_id, system_id) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

create_external_subset(name, external_id, system_id)

Create an external subset


874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 874

static VALUE
create_external_subset(VALUE self, VALUE name, VALUE external_id, VALUE system_id)
{
  xmlNodePtr node;
  xmlDocPtr doc;
  xmlDtdPtr dtd;

  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);

  doc = node->doc;

  if (doc->extSubset) {
    rb_raise(rb_eRuntimeError, "Document already has an external subset");
  }

  dtd = xmlNewDtd(
          doc,
          NIL_P(name)        ? NULL : (const xmlChar *)StringValueCStr(name),
          NIL_P(external_id) ? NULL : (const xmlChar *)StringValueCStr(external_id),
          NIL_P(system_id)   ? NULL : (const xmlChar *)StringValueCStr(system_id)
        );

  if (!dtd) { return Qnil; }

  return noko_xml_node_wrap(Qnil, (xmlNodePtr)dtd);
}

#create_internal_subset(name, external_id, system_id) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

create_internal_subset(name, external_id, system_id)

Create the internal subset of a document.

doc.create_internal_subset("chapter", "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML//EN", "chapter.dtd")
# => <!DOCTYPE chapter PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML//EN" "chapter.dtd">

doc.create_internal_subset("chapter", nil, "chapter.dtd")
# => <!DOCTYPE chapter SYSTEM "chapter.dtd">

841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 841

static VALUE
create_internal_subset(VALUE self, VALUE name, VALUE external_id, VALUE system_id)
{
  xmlNodePtr node;
  xmlDocPtr doc;
  xmlDtdPtr dtd;

  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);

  doc = node->doc;

  if (xmlGetIntSubset(doc)) {
    rb_raise(rb_eRuntimeError, "Document already has an internal subset");
  }

  dtd = xmlCreateIntSubset(
          doc,
          NIL_P(name)        ? NULL : (const xmlChar *)StringValueCStr(name),
          NIL_P(external_id) ? NULL : (const xmlChar *)StringValueCStr(external_id),
          NIL_P(system_id)   ? NULL : (const xmlChar *)StringValueCStr(system_id)
        );

  if (!dtd) { return Qnil; }

  return noko_xml_node_wrap(Qnil, (xmlNodePtr)dtd);
}

#css_pathObject

Get the path to this node as a CSS expression


1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1200

def css_path
  path.split(%r{/}).map do |part|
    part.empty? ? nil : part.gsub(/\[(\d+)\]/, ':nth-of-type(\1)')
  end.compact.join(" > ")
end

#decorate!Object

Decorate this node with the decorators set up in this node's Document


132
133
134
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 132

def decorate!
  document.decorate(self)
end

#default_namespace=(url) ⇒ Object

Adds a default namespace supplied as a string url href, to self. The consequence is as an xmlns attribute with supplied argument were present in parsed XML. A default namespace set with this method will now show up in #attributes, but when this node is serialized to XML an “xmlns” attribute will appear. See also #namespace and #namespace=


427
428
429
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 427

def default_namespace=(url)
  add_namespace_definition(nil, url)
end

#descriptionObject

Fetch the Nokogiri::HTML4::ElementDescription for this node. Returns nil on XML documents and on unknown tags.


1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1167

def description
  return nil if document.xml?

  Nokogiri::HTML4::ElementDescription[name]
end

#do_xinclude(options = XML::ParseOptions::DEFAULT_XML) {|options| ... } ⇒ Object

Do xinclude substitution on the subtree below node. If given a block, a Nokogiri::XML::ParseOptions object initialized from options, will be passed to it, allowing more convenient modification of the parser options.

Yields:

  • (options)

454
455
456
457
458
459
460
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 454

def do_xinclude(options = XML::ParseOptions::DEFAULT_XML)
  options = Nokogiri::XML::ParseOptions.new(options) if Integer === options
  yield options if block_given?

  # call c extension
  process_xincludes(options.to_i)
end

#documentObject

:call-seq: document() → Nokogiri::XML::Document

:category: Traversing Document Structure

Returns

Parent Nokogiri::XML::Document for this node


781
782
783
784
785
786
787
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 781

static VALUE
rb_xml_node_document(VALUE self)
{
  xmlNodePtr node;
  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);
  return DOC_RUBY_OBJECT(node->doc);
}

#document?Boolean

Returns true if this is a Document

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1145
1146
1147
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1145

def document?
  is_a?(XML::Document)
end

#dup(*args) ⇒ Object Also known as: clone

:call-seq:

dup → Nokogiri::XML::Node
dup(depth) → Nokogiri::XML::Node
dup(depth, new_parent_doc) → Nokogiri::XML::Node

Copy this node.

Parameters
  • depth 0 is a shallow copy, 1 (the default) is a deep copy.

  • new_parent_doc The new node's parent Document. Defaults to the this node's document.

Returns

The new Nokgiri::XML::Node


966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 966

static VALUE
duplicate_node(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE self)
{
  VALUE r_level, r_new_parent_doc;
  int level;
  int n_args;
  xmlDocPtr new_parent_doc;
  xmlNodePtr node, dup;

  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);

  n_args = rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "02", &r_level, &r_new_parent_doc);

  if (n_args < 1) {
    r_level = INT2NUM((long)1);
  }
  level = (int)NUM2INT(r_level);

  if (n_args < 2) {
    new_parent_doc = node->doc;
  } else {
    Data_Get_Struct(r_new_parent_doc, xmlDoc, new_parent_doc);
  }

  dup = xmlDocCopyNode(node, new_parent_doc, level);
  if (dup == NULL) { return Qnil; }

  noko_xml_document_pin_node(dup);

  return noko_xml_node_wrap(rb_obj_class(self), dup);
}

#eachObject

Iterate over each attribute name and value pair for this Node.


635
636
637
638
639
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 635

def each
  attribute_nodes.each do |node|
    yield [node.node_name, node.value]
  end
end

#element?Boolean Also known as: elem?

Returns true if this is an Element node

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1181
1182
1183
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1181

def element?
  type == ELEMENT_NODE
end

#element_childrenObject Also known as: elements

:call-seq:

element_children() → NodeSet
elements() → NodeSet
Returns

The node's child elements as a NodeSet. Only children that are elements will be returned, which notably excludes Text nodes.

Example:

Note that #children returns the Text node “hello” while #element_children does not.

div = Nokogiri::HTML5("<div>hello<span>world</span>").at_css("div")
div.element_children
# => [#<Nokogiri::XML::Element:0x50 name="span" children=[#<Nokogiri::XML::Text:0x3c "world">]>]
div.children
# => [#<Nokogiri::XML::Text:0x64 "hello">,
#     #<Nokogiri::XML::Element:0x50 name="span" children=[#<Nokogiri::XML::Text:0x3c "world">]>]

1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 1127

static VALUE
rb_xml_node_element_children(VALUE self)
{
  xmlNodePtr node;
  xmlNodePtr child;
  xmlNodeSetPtr set;
  VALUE document;
  VALUE node_set;

  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);

  child = xmlFirstElementChild(node);
  set = xmlXPathNodeSetCreate(child);

  document = DOC_RUBY_OBJECT(node->doc);

  if (!child) { return noko_xml_node_set_wrap(set, document); }

  child = xmlNextElementSibling(child);
  while (NULL != child) {
    xmlXPathNodeSetAddUnique(set, child);
    child = xmlNextElementSibling(child);
  }

  node_set = noko_xml_node_set_wrap(set, document);

  return node_set;
}

#encode_special_chars(string) ⇒ Object

:call-seq: encode_special_chars(string) → String

Encode any special characters in string


810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 810

static VALUE
encode_special_chars(VALUE self, VALUE string)
{
  xmlNodePtr node;
  xmlChar *encoded;
  VALUE encoded_str;

  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);
  encoded = xmlEncodeSpecialChars(
              node->doc,
              (const xmlChar *)StringValueCStr(string)
            );

  encoded_str = NOKOGIRI_STR_NEW2(encoded);
  xmlFree(encoded);

  return encoded_str;
}

#external_subsetObject

:call-seq:

external_subset()

Get the external subset


907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 907

static VALUE
external_subset(VALUE self)
{
  xmlNodePtr node;
  xmlDocPtr doc;
  xmlDtdPtr dtd;

  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);

  if (!node->doc) { return Qnil; }

  doc = node->doc;
  dtd = doc->extSubset;

  if (!dtd) { return Qnil; }

  return noko_xml_node_wrap(Qnil, (xmlNodePtr)dtd);
}

#first_element_childObject

:call-seq:

first_element_child() → Node
Returns

The first child Node that is an element.

Example:

Note that the “hello” child, which is a Text node, is skipped and the <span> element is returned.

div = Nokogiri::HTML5("<div>hello<span>world</span>").at_css("div")
div.first_element_child
# => #(Element:0x3c { name = "span", children = [ #(Text "world")] })

1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 1171

static VALUE
rb_xml_node_first_element_child(VALUE self)
{
  xmlNodePtr node, child;
  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);

  child = xmlFirstElementChild(node);
  if (!child) { return Qnil; }

  return noko_xml_node_wrap(Qnil, child);
}

#fragment(tags) ⇒ Object

Create a DocumentFragment containing tags that is relative to this context node.


1022
1023
1024
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1022

def fragment(tags)
  document.related_class("DocumentFragment").new(document, tags, self)
end

#fragment?Boolean

Returns true if this is a DocumentFragment

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1160
1161
1162
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1160

def fragment?
  type == DOCUMENT_FRAG_NODE
end

#html?Boolean

Returns true if this is an HTML4::Document or HTML5::Document node

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1140
1141
1142
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1140

def html?
  type == HTML_DOCUMENT_NODE
end

#inner_html(*args) ⇒ Object

Get the inner_html for this node's Node#children


1195
1196
1197
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1195

def inner_html(*args)
  children.map { |x| x.to_html(*args) }.join
end

#inner_html=(node_or_tags) ⇒ Object

Set the content for this Node to node_or_tags.

node_or_tags can be a Nokogiri::XML::Node, a Nokogiri::XML::DocumentFragment, or a String containing markup.

⚠ Please note that despite the name, this method will not always parse a String argument as HTML. A String argument will be parsed with the DocumentFragment parser related to this node's document.

For example, if the document is an HTML4::Document then the string will be parsed as HTML4 using HTML4::DocumentFragment; but if the document is an XML::Document then it will parse the string as XML using XML::DocumentFragment.

Also see related method children=


338
339
340
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 338

def inner_html=(node_or_tags)
  self.children = node_or_tags
end

#internal_subsetObject

:call-seq:

internal_subset()

Get the internal subset


932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 932

static VALUE
internal_subset(VALUE self)
{
  xmlNodePtr node;
  xmlDocPtr doc;
  xmlDtdPtr dtd;

  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);

  if (!node->doc) { return Qnil; }

  doc = node->doc;
  dtd = xmlGetIntSubset(doc);

  if (!dtd) { return Qnil; }

  return noko_xml_node_wrap(Qnil, (xmlNodePtr)dtd);
}

#key?(attribute) ⇒ Boolean Also known as: has_attribute?

Returns true if attribute is set

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 1216

static VALUE
key_eh(VALUE self, VALUE attribute)
{
  xmlNodePtr node;
  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);
  if (xmlHasProp(node, (xmlChar *)StringValueCStr(attribute))) {
    return Qtrue;
  }
  return Qfalse;
}

#keysObject

Get the attribute names for this Node.


629
630
631
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 629

def keys
  attribute_nodes.map(&:node_name)
end

#kwattr_add(attribute_name, keywords) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

kwattr_add(attribute_name, keywords) → self

Ensure that values are present in a keyword attribute.

Any values in keywords that already exist in the Node's attribute values are not added. Note that any existing duplicates in the attribute values are not removed. Compare with #kwattr_append.

A “keyword attribute” is a node attribute that contains a set of space-delimited values. Perhaps the most familiar example of this is the HTML “class” attribute used to contain CSS classes. But other keyword attributes exist, for instance the “rel” attribute.

See also #add_class, #kwattr_values, #kwattr_append, #kwattr_remove

Parameters
  • attribute_name (String) The name of the keyword attribute to be modified.

  • keywords (String, Array<String>) Keywords to be added to the attribute named attribute_name. May be a string containing whitespace-delimited values, or an Array of String values. Any values already present will not be added. Any values not present will be added. If the named attribute does not exist, it is created.

Returns

self (Nokogiri::XML::Node) for ease of chaining method calls.

Example: Ensure that a Node has “nofollow” in its rel attribute.

Note that duplicates are not added.

node                               # => <a></a>
node.kwattr_add("rel", "nofollow") # => <a rel="nofollow"></a>
node.kwattr_add("rel", "nofollow") # => <a rel="nofollow"></a>

Example: Ensure that a Node has “nofollow” and “noreferrer” in its rel attribute, via a String argument.

Note that "nofollow" is not added because it is already present. Note also that the
pre-existing duplicate "nofollow" is not removed.

 node                                          # => <a rel="nofollow nofollow"></a>
 node.kwattr_add("rel", "nofollow noreferrer") # => <a rel="nofollow nofollow noreferrer"></a>

Example: Ensure that a Node has “nofollow” and “noreferrer” in its rel attribute, via an Array argument.

node                                               # => <a></a>
node.kwattr_add("rel", ["nofollow", "noreferrer"]) # => <a rel="nofollow noreferrer"></a>

Since v1.11.0


892
893
894
895
896
897
898
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 892

def kwattr_add(attribute_name, keywords)
  keywords = keywordify(keywords)
  current_kws = kwattr_values(attribute_name)
  new_kws = (current_kws + (keywords - current_kws)).join(" ")
  set_attribute(attribute_name, new_kws)
  self
end

#kwattr_append(attribute_name, keywords) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

kwattr_append(attribute_name, keywords) → self

Add keywords to a Node's keyword attribute, regardless of duplication. Compare with #kwattr_add.

A “keyword attribute” is a node attribute that contains a set of space-delimited values. Perhaps the most familiar example of this is the HTML “class” attribute used to contain CSS classes. But other keyword attributes exist, for instance the “rel” attribute.

See also #append_class, #kwattr_values, #kwattr_add, #kwattr_remove

Parameters
  • attribute_name (String) The name of the keyword attribute to be modified.

  • keywords (String, Array<String>) Keywords to be added to the attribute named attribute_name. May be a string containing whitespace-delimited values, or an Array of String values. All values passed in will be appended to the named attribute even if they are already present in the attribute. If the named attribute does not exist, it is created.

Returns

self (Node) for ease of chaining method calls.

Example: Append “nofollow” to the rel attribute.

Note that duplicates are added.

node                                  # => <a></a>
node.kwattr_append("rel", "nofollow") # => <a rel="nofollow"></a>
node.kwattr_append("rel", "nofollow") # => <a rel="nofollow nofollow"></a>

Example: Append “nofollow” and “noreferrer” to the rel attribute, via a String argument.

Note that “nofollow” is appended even though it is already present.

node                                             # => <a rel="nofollow"></a>
node.kwattr_append("rel", "nofollow noreferrer") # => <a rel="nofollow nofollow noreferrer"></a>

Example: Append “nofollow” and “noreferrer” to the rel attribute, via an Array argument.

node                                                  # => <a></a>
node.kwattr_append("rel", ["nofollow", "noreferrer"]) # => <a rel="nofollow noreferrer"></a>

Since v1.11.0


945
946
947
948
949
950
951
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 945

def kwattr_append(attribute_name, keywords)
  keywords = keywordify(keywords)
  current_kws = kwattr_values(attribute_name)
  new_kws = (current_kws + keywords).join(" ")
  set_attribute(attribute_name, new_kws)
  self
end

#kwattr_remove(attribute_name, keywords) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

kwattr_remove(attribute_name, keywords) → self

Remove keywords from a keyword attribute. Any matching keywords that exist in the named attribute are removed, including any multiple entries.

If no keywords remain after this operation, or if keywords is nil, the attribute is deleted from the node.

A “keyword attribute” is a node attribute that contains a set of space-delimited values. Perhaps the most familiar example of this is the HTML “class” attribute used to contain CSS classes. But other keyword attributes exist, for instance the “rel” attribute.

See also #remove_class, #kwattr_values, #kwattr_add, #kwattr_append

Parameters
  • attribute_name (String) The name of the keyword attribute to be modified.

  • keywords (String, Array<String>) Keywords to be removed from the attribute named attribute_name. May be a string containing whitespace-delimited values, or an Array of String values. Any keywords present in the named attribute will be removed. If no keywords remain, or if keywords is nil, the attribute is deleted.

Returns

self (Node) for ease of chaining method calls.

Example:

Note that the rel attribute is deleted when empty.

node                                    # => <a rel="nofollow noreferrer">link</a>
node.kwattr_remove("rel", "nofollow")   # => <a rel="noreferrer">link</a>
node.kwattr_remove("rel", "noreferrer") # => <a>link</a>

Since v1.11.0


988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 988

def kwattr_remove(attribute_name, keywords)
  if keywords.nil?
    remove_attribute(attribute_name)
    return self
  end

  keywords = keywordify(keywords)
  current_kws = kwattr_values(attribute_name)
  new_kws = current_kws - keywords
  if new_kws.empty?
    remove_attribute(attribute_name)
  else
    set_attribute(attribute_name, new_kws.join(" "))
  end
  self
end

#kwattr_values(attribute_name) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

kwattr_values(attribute_name) → Array<String>

Fetch values from a keyword attribute of a Node.

A “keyword attribute” is a node attribute that contains a set of space-delimited values. Perhaps the most familiar example of this is the HTML “class” attribute used to contain CSS classes. But other keyword attributes exist, for instance the “rel” attribute.

See also #classes, #kwattr_add, #kwattr_append, #kwattr_remove

Parameters
  • attribute_name (String) The name of the keyword attribute to be inspected.

Returns

(Array<String>) The values present in the Node's attribute_name attribute. If the attribute is empty or non-existent, the return value is an empty array.

Example:

node                      # => <a rel="nofollow noopener external">link</a>
node.kwattr_values("rel") # => ["nofollow", "noopener", "external"]

Since v1.11.0


838
839
840
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 838

def kwattr_values(attribute_name)
  keywordify(get_attribute(attribute_name) || [])
end

#langObject

Searches the language of a node, i.e. the values of the xml:lang attribute or the one carried by the nearest ancestor.


1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 1556

static VALUE
get_lang(VALUE self_rb)
{
  xmlNodePtr self ;
  xmlChar *lang ;
  VALUE lang_rb ;

  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self_rb, xmlNode, self);

  lang = xmlNodeGetLang(self);
  if (lang) {
    lang_rb = NOKOGIRI_STR_NEW2(lang);
    xmlFree(lang);
    return lang_rb ;
  }

  return Qnil ;
}

#lang=Object

Set the language of a node, i.e. the values of the xml:lang attribute.


1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 1535

static VALUE
set_lang(VALUE self_rb, VALUE lang_rb)
{
  xmlNodePtr self ;
  xmlChar *lang ;

  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self_rb, xmlNode, self);
  lang = (xmlChar *)StringValueCStr(lang_rb);

  xmlNodeSetLang(self, lang);

  return Qnil ;
}

#last_element_childObject

:call-seq:

last_element_child() → Node
Returns

The last child Node that is an element.

Example:

Note that the “hello” child, which is a Text node, is skipped and the <span>yes</span> element is returned.

div = Nokogiri::HTML5("<div><span>no</span><span>yes</span>skip</div>").at_css("div")
div.last_element_child
# => #(Element:0x3c { name = "span", children = [ #(Text "yes")] })

1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 1198

static VALUE
rb_xml_node_last_element_child(VALUE self)
{
  xmlNodePtr node, child;
  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);

  child = xmlLastElementChild(node);
  if (!child) { return Qnil; }

  return noko_xml_node_wrap(Qnil, child);
}

#lineObject

:call-seq:

line() → Integer
Returns

The line number of this Node.


⚠ The CRuby and JRuby implementations differ in important ways!

Semantic differences:

  • The CRuby method reflects the node's line number in the parsed string

  • The JRuby method reflects the node's line number in the final DOM structure after corrections have been applied

Performance differences:

  • The CRuby method is O(1) (constant time)

  • The JRuby method is O(n) (linear time, where n is the number of nodes before/above the element in the DOM)

If you'd like to help improve the JRuby implementation, please review these issues and reach out to the maintainers:


2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 2007

static VALUE
rb_xml_node_line(VALUE rb_node)
{
  xmlNodePtr c_node;
  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(rb_node, xmlNode, c_node);

  return LONG2NUM(xmlGetLineNo(c_node));
}

#line=(num) ⇒ Object

Sets the line for this Node. num must be less than 65535.


2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
2041
2042
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 2022

static VALUE
rb_xml_node_line_set(VALUE rb_node, VALUE rb_line_number)
{
  xmlNodePtr c_node;
  int line_number = NUM2INT(rb_line_number);

  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(rb_node, xmlNode, c_node);

  // libxml2 optionally uses xmlNode.psvi to store longer line numbers, but only for text nodes.
  // search for "psvi" in SAX2.c and tree.c to learn more.
  if (line_number < 65535) {
    c_node->line = (short) line_number;
  } else {
    c_node->line = 65535;
    if (c_node->type == XML_TEXT_NODE) {
      c_node->psvi = (void *)(ptrdiff_t) line_number;
    }
  }

  return rb_line_number;
}

#matches?(selector) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if this Node matches selector

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1015
1016
1017
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1015

def matches?(selector)
  ancestors.last.search(selector).include?(self)
end

#namespaceObject

:call-seq:

namespace() → Namespace
Returns

The Namespace of the element or attribute node, or nil if there is no namespace.

Example:

doc = Nokogiri::XML(<<~EOF)
  <root>
    <first/>
    <second xmlns="http://example.com/child"/>
    <foo:third xmlns:foo="http://example.com/foo"/>
  </root>
EOF
doc.at_xpath("//first").namespace
# => nil
doc.at_xpath("//xmlns:second", "xmlns" => "http://example.com/child").namespace
# => #(Namespace:0x3c { href = "http://example.com/child" })
doc.at_xpath("//foo:third", "foo" => "http://example.com/foo").namespace
# => #(Namespace:0x50 { prefix = "foo", href = "http://example.com/foo" })

1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 1376

static VALUE
rb_xml_node_namespace(VALUE rb_node)
{
  xmlNodePtr c_node ;
  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(rb_node, xmlNode, c_node);

  if (c_node->ns) {
    return noko_xml_namespace_wrap(c_node->ns, c_node->doc);
  }

  return Qnil ;
}

#namespace=(ns) ⇒ Object

Set the default namespace on this node (as would be defined with an “xmlns=” attribute in XML source), as a Namespace object ns. Note that a Namespace added this way will NOT be serialized as an xmlns attribute for this node. You probably want #default_namespace= instead, or perhaps #add_namespace_definition with a nil prefix argument.


437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 437

def namespace=(ns)
  return set_namespace(ns) unless ns

  unless Nokogiri::XML::Namespace === ns
    raise TypeError, "#{ns.class} can't be coerced into Nokogiri::XML::Namespace"
  end
  if ns.document != document
    raise ArgumentError, "namespace must be declared on the same document"
  end

  set_namespace(ns)
end

#namespace_definitionsObject

:call-seq:

namespace_definitions() → Array<Nokogiri::XML::Namespace>
Returns

Namespaces that are defined directly on this node, as an Array of Namespace objects. The array will be empty if no namespaces are defined on this node.

Example:

doc = Nokogiri::XML(<<~EOF)
  <root xmlns="http://example.com/root">
    <first/>
    <second xmlns="http://example.com/child" xmlns:unused="http://example.com/unused"/>
    <foo:third xmlns:foo="http://example.com/foo"/>
  </root>
EOF
doc.at_xpath("//root:first", "root" => "http://example.com/root").namespace_definitions
# => []
doc.at_xpath("//xmlns:second", "xmlns" => "http://example.com/child").namespace_definitions
# => [#(Namespace:0x3c { href = "http://example.com/child" }),
#     #(Namespace:0x50 {
#       prefix = "unused",
#       href = "http://example.com/unused"
#       })]
doc.at_xpath("//foo:third", "foo" => "http://example.com/foo").namespace_definitions
# => [#(Namespace:0x64 { prefix = "foo", href = "http://example.com/foo" })]

1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 1417

static VALUE
namespace_definitions(VALUE rb_node)
{
  /* this code in the mode of xmlHasProp() */
  xmlNodePtr c_node ;
  xmlNsPtr c_namespace;
  VALUE definitions = rb_ary_new();

  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(rb_node, xmlNode, c_node);

  c_namespace = c_node->nsDef;
  if (!c_namespace) {
    return definitions;
  }

  while (c_namespace != NULL) {
    rb_ary_push(definitions, noko_xml_namespace_wrap(c_namespace, c_node->doc));
    c_namespace = c_namespace->next;
  }

  return definitions;
}

#namespace_scopesObject

:call-seq:

namespace_scopes() → Array<Nokogiri::XML::Namespace>
Returns

Array of all the Namespaces on this node and its ancestors.

See also #namespaces

Example:

doc = Nokogiri::XML(<<~EOF)
  <root xmlns="http://example.com/root" xmlns:bar="http://example.com/bar">
    <first/>
    <second xmlns="http://example.com/child"/>
    <third xmlns:foo="http://example.com/foo"/>
  </root>
EOF
doc.at_xpath("//root:first", "root" => "http://example.com/root").namespace_scopes
# => [#(Namespace:0x3c { href = "http://example.com/root" }),
#     #(Namespace:0x50 { prefix = "bar", href = "http://example.com/bar" })]
doc.at_xpath("//child:second", "child" => "http://example.com/child").namespace_scopes
# => [#(Namespace:0x64 { href = "http://example.com/child" }),
#     #(Namespace:0x50 { prefix = "bar", href = "http://example.com/bar" })]
doc.at_xpath("//root:third", "root" => "http://example.com/root").namespace_scopes
# => [#(Namespace:0x78 { prefix = "foo", href = "http://example.com/foo" }),
#     #(Namespace:0x3c { href = "http://example.com/root" }),
#     #(Namespace:0x50 { prefix = "bar", href = "http://example.com/bar" })]

1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 1468

static VALUE
rb_xml_node_namespace_scopes(VALUE rb_node)
{
  xmlNodePtr c_node ;
  xmlNsPtr *namespaces;
  VALUE scopes = rb_ary_new();
  int j;

  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(rb_node, xmlNode, c_node);

  namespaces = xmlGetNsList(c_node->doc, c_node);
  if (!namespaces) {
    return scopes;
  }

  for (j = 0 ; namespaces[j] != NULL ; ++j) {
    rb_ary_push(scopes, noko_xml_namespace_wrap(namespaces[j], c_node->doc));
  }

  xmlFree(namespaces);
  return scopes;
}

#namespaced_key?(attribute, namespace) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if attribute is set with namespace

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 1233

static VALUE
namespaced_key_eh(VALUE self, VALUE attribute, VALUE namespace)
{
  xmlNodePtr node;
  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);
  if (xmlHasNsProp(node, (xmlChar *)StringValueCStr(attribute),
                   NIL_P(namespace) ? NULL : (xmlChar *)StringValueCStr(namespace))) {
    return Qtrue;
  }
  return Qfalse;
}

#namespacesObject

:call-seq:

namespaces() → Hash<String(Namespace#prefix) ⇒ String(Namespace#href)>

Fetch all the namespaces on this node and its ancestors.

Note that the keys in this hash XML attributes that would be used to define this namespace, such as “xmlns:prefix”, not just the prefix.

The default namespace for this node will be included with key “xmlns”.

See also #namespace_scopes

Returns

Hash containing all the namespaces on this node and its ancestors. The hash keys are the namespace prefix, and the hash value for each key is the namespace URI.

Example:

doc = Nokogiri::XML(<<~EOF)
  <root xmlns="http://example.com/root" xmlns:in_scope="http://example.com/in_scope">
    <first/>
    <second xmlns="http://example.com/child"/>
    <third xmlns:foo="http://example.com/foo"/>
  </root>
EOF
doc.at_xpath("//root:first", "root" => "http://example.com/root").namespaces
# => {"xmlns"=>"http://example.com/root",
#     "xmlns:in_scope"=>"http://example.com/in_scope"}
doc.at_xpath("//child:second", "child" => "http://example.com/child").namespaces
# => {"xmlns"=>"http://example.com/child",
#     "xmlns:in_scope"=>"http://example.com/in_scope"}
doc.at_xpath("//root:third", "root" => "http://example.com/root").namespaces
# => {"xmlns:foo"=>"http://example.com/foo",
#     "xmlns"=>"http://example.com/root",
#     "xmlns:in_scope"=>"http://example.com/in_scope"}

1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1116

def namespaces
  namespace_scopes.each_with_object({}) do |ns, hash|
    prefix = ns.prefix
    key = prefix ? "xmlns:#{prefix}" : "xmlns"
    hash[key] = ns.href
  end
end

#content=Object

Set the content for this Node


1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 1511

static VALUE
set_native_content(VALUE self, VALUE content)
{
  xmlNodePtr node, child, next ;
  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);

  child = node->children;
  while (NULL != child) {
    next = child->next ;
    xmlUnlinkNode(child) ;
    noko_xml_document_pin_node(child);
    child = next ;
  }

  xmlNodeSetContent(node, (xmlChar *)StringValueCStr(content));
  return content;
}

#next_elementObject

Returns the next Nokogiri::XML::Element type sibling node.


1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 1057

static VALUE
next_element(VALUE self)
{
  xmlNodePtr node, sibling;
  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);

  sibling = xmlNextElementSibling(node);
  if (!sibling) { return Qnil; }

  return noko_xml_node_wrap(Qnil, sibling);
}

#next_siblingObject Also known as: next

Returns the next sibling node


1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 1021

static VALUE
next_sibling(VALUE self)
{
  xmlNodePtr node, sibling;
  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);

  sibling = node->next;
  if (!sibling) { return Qnil; }

  return noko_xml_node_wrap(Qnil, sibling) ;
}

#nameObject Also known as: name

Returns the name for this Node


1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 1621

static VALUE
get_name(VALUE self)
{
  xmlNodePtr node;
  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);
  if (node->name) {
    return NOKOGIRI_STR_NEW2(node->name);
  }
  return Qnil;
}

#name=(new_name) ⇒ Object Also known as: name=

Set the name for this Node


1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 1606

static VALUE
set_name(VALUE self, VALUE new_name)
{
  xmlNodePtr node;
  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);
  xmlNodeSetName(node, (xmlChar *)StringValueCStr(new_name));
  return new_name;
}

#node_typeObject Also known as: type

Get the type for this Node


1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 1497

static VALUE
node_type(VALUE self)
{
  xmlNodePtr node;
  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);
  return INT2NUM(node->type);
}

#parentObject

Get the parent Node for this Node


1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 1588

static VALUE
get_parent(VALUE self)
{
  xmlNodePtr node, parent;
  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);

  parent = node->parent;
  if (!parent) { return Qnil; }

  return noko_xml_node_wrap(Qnil, parent) ;
}

#parent=(parent_node) ⇒ Object

Set the parent Node for this Node


417
418
419
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 417

def parent=(parent_node)
  parent_node.add_child(self)
end

#parse(string_or_io, options = nil) {|options| ... } ⇒ Object

Parse string_or_io as a document fragment within the context of this node. Returns a XML::NodeSet containing the nodes parsed from string_or_io.

Yields:

  • (options)

1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1030

def parse(string_or_io, options = nil)
  ##
  # When the current node is unparented and not an element node, use the
  # document as the parsing context instead. Otherwise, the in-context
  # parser cannot find an element or a document node.
  # Document Fragments are also not usable by the in-context parser.
  if !element? && !document? && (!parent || parent.fragment?)
    return document.parse(string_or_io, options)
  end

  options ||= (document.html? ? ParseOptions::DEFAULT_HTML : ParseOptions::DEFAULT_XML)
  options = Nokogiri::XML::ParseOptions.new(options) if Integer === options
  yield options if block_given?

  contents = if string_or_io.respond_to?(:read)
    string_or_io.read
  else
    string_or_io
  end

  return Nokogiri::XML::NodeSet.new(document) if contents.empty?

  # libxml2 does not obey the +recover+ option after encountering errors during +in_context+
  # parsing, and so this horrible hack is here to try to emulate recovery behavior.
  #
  # Unfortunately, this means we're no longer parsing "in context" and so namespaces that
  # would have been inherited from the context node won't be handled correctly. This hack was
  # written in 2010, and I regret it, because it's silently degrading functionality in a way
  # that's not easily prevented (or even detected).
  #
  # I think preferable behavior would be to either:
  #
  # a. add an error noting that we "fell back" and pointing the user to turning off the +recover+ option
  # b. don't recover, but raise a sensible exception
  #
  # For context and background: https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/313
  # FIXME bug report: https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/2092
  error_count = document.errors.length
  node_set = in_context(contents, options.to_i)
  if node_set.empty? && (document.errors.length > error_count)
    if options.recover?
      fragment = document.related_class("DocumentFragment").parse(contents)
      node_set = fragment.children
    else
      raise document.errors[error_count]
    end
  end
  node_set
end

#pathObject

Returns the path associated with this Node


1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 1638

static VALUE
rb_xml_node_path(VALUE rb_node)
{
  xmlNodePtr c_node;
  xmlChar *c_path ;
  VALUE rval;

  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(rb_node, xmlNode, c_node);

  c_path = xmlGetNodePath(c_node);
  if (c_path == NULL) {
    // see https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/2250
    // this behavior is clearly undesirable, but is what libxml <= 2.9.10 returned, and so we
    // do this for now to preserve the behavior across libxml2 versions.
    rval = NOKOGIRI_STR_NEW2("?");
  } else {
    rval = NOKOGIRI_STR_NEW2(c_path);
    xmlFree(c_path);
  }

  return rval ;
}

#pointer_idObject

:call-seq: pointer_id() → Integer

Returns

A unique id for this node based on the internal memory structures. This method is used by #== to determine node identity.


796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 796

static VALUE
rb_xml_node_pointer_id(VALUE self)
{
  xmlNodePtr node;
  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);

  return rb_uint2inum((uintptr_t)(node));
}

#prepend_child(node_or_tags) ⇒ Object

Add node_or_tags as the first child of this Node.

node_or_tags can be a Nokogiri::XML::Node, a ::DocumentFragment, a ::NodeSet, or a String containing markup.

Returns the reparented node (if node_or_tags is a Node), or NodeSet (if node_or_tags is a DocumentFragment, NodeSet, or String).

Also see related method add_child.


168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 168

def prepend_child(node_or_tags)
  if (first = children.first)
    # Mimic the error add_child would raise.
    raise "Document already has a root node" if document? && !(node_or_tags.comment? || node_or_tags.processing_instruction?)

    first.__send__(:add_sibling, :previous, node_or_tags)
  else
    add_child(node_or_tags)
  end
end

#previous_elementObject

Returns the previous Nokogiri::XML::Element type sibling node.


1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 1075

static VALUE
previous_element(VALUE self)
{
  xmlNodePtr node, sibling;
  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);

  /*
   *  note that we don't use xmlPreviousElementSibling here because it's buggy pre-2.7.7.
   */
  sibling = node->prev;
  if (!sibling) { return Qnil; }

  while (sibling && sibling->type != XML_ELEMENT_NODE) {
    sibling = sibling->prev;
  }

  return sibling ? noko_xml_node_wrap(Qnil, sibling) : Qnil ;
}

#previous_siblingObject Also known as: previous

Returns the previous sibling node


1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 1039

static VALUE
previous_sibling(VALUE self)
{
  xmlNodePtr node, sibling;
  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);

  sibling = node->prev;
  if (!sibling) { return Qnil; }

  return noko_xml_node_wrap(Qnil, sibling);
}

#processing_instruction?Boolean

Returns true if this is a ProcessingInstruction node

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1150
1151
1152
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1150

def processing_instruction?
  type == PI_NODE
end

#read_only?Boolean

Is this a read only node?

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1175
1176
1177
1178
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1175

def read_only?
  # According to gdome2, these are read-only node types
  [NOTATION_NODE, ENTITY_NODE, ENTITY_DECL].include?(type)
end

#remove_attribute(name) ⇒ Object Also known as: delete

Remove the attribute named name


643
644
645
646
647
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 643

def remove_attribute(name)
  attr = attributes[name].remove if key?(name)
  clear_xpath_context if Nokogiri.jruby?
  attr
end

#remove_class(names = nil) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

remove_class(css_classes) → self

Remove HTML CSS classes from this node. Any CSS class names in css_classes that exist in this node's “class” attribute are removed, including any multiple entries.

If no CSS classes remain after this operation, or if css_classes is nil, the “class” attribute is deleted from the node.

This is a convenience function and is equivalent to:

node.kwattr_remove("class", css_classes)

Also see #kwattr_remove, #classes, #add_class, #append_class

Parameters
  • css_classes (String, Array<String>)

    CSS class names to be removed from the Node's “class” attribute. May be a string containing whitespace-delimited names, or an Array of String names. Any class names already present will be removed. If no CSS classes remain, the “class” attribute is deleted.

Returns

self (Nokogiri::XML::Node) for ease of chaining method calls.

Example: Deleting a CSS class

Note that all instances of the class “section” are removed from the “class” attribute.

node                         # => <div class="section header section"></div>
node.remove_class("section") # => <div class="header"></div>

Example: Deleting the only remaining CSS class

Note that the attribute is removed once there are no remaining classes.

node                         # => <div class="section"></div>
node.remove_class("section") # => <div></div>

Example: Deleting multiple CSS classes

Note that the “class” attribute is deleted once it's empty.

node                                    # => <div class="section header float"></div>
node.remove_class(["section", "float"]) # => <div class="header"></div>

809
810
811
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 809

def remove_class(names = nil)
  kwattr_remove("class", names)
end

#replace(node_or_tags) ⇒ Object

Replace this Node with node_or_tags.

node_or_tags can be a Nokogiri::XML::Node, a ::DocumentFragment, a ::NodeSet, or a String containing markup.

Returns the reparented node (if node_or_tags is a Node), or NodeSet (if node_or_tags is a DocumentFragment, NodeSet, or String).

Also see related method swap.


369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 369

def replace(node_or_tags)
  raise("Cannot replace a node with no parent") unless parent

  # We cannot replace a text node directly, otherwise libxml will return
  # an internal error at parser.c:13031, I don't know exactly why
  # libxml is trying to find a parent node that is an element or document
  # so I can't tell if this is bug in libxml or not. issue #775.
  if text?
    replacee = Nokogiri::XML::Node.new("dummy", document)
    add_previous_sibling_node(replacee)
    unlink
    return replacee.replace(node_or_tags)
  end

  node_or_tags = parent.coerce(node_or_tags)

  if node_or_tags.is_a?(XML::NodeSet)
    node_or_tags.each { |n| add_previous_sibling(n) }
    unlink
  else
    replace_node(node_or_tags)
  end
  node_or_tags
end

#serialize(*args, &block) ⇒ Object

Serialize Node using options. Save options can also be set using a block.

See also Nokogiri::XML::Node::SaveOptions and [email protected]+and+Generating+Output.

These two statements are equivalent:

node.serialize(:encoding => 'UTF-8', :save_with => FORMAT | AS_XML)

or

node.serialize(:encoding => 'UTF-8') do |config|
  config.format.as_xml
end

1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1280

def serialize(*args, &block)
  options = if args.first.is_a?(Hash)
    args.shift
  else
    {
      encoding: args[0],
      save_with: args[1],
    }
  end

  options[:encoding] ||= document.encoding
  encoding = Encoding.find(options[:encoding] || "UTF-8")

  io = StringIO.new(String.new(encoding: encoding))

  write_to(io, options, &block)
  io.string
end

#swap(node_or_tags) ⇒ Object

Swap this Node for node_or_tags

node_or_tags can be a Nokogiri::XML::Node, a ::DocumentFragment, a ::NodeSet, or a String Containing markup.

Returns self, to support chaining of calls.

Also see related method replace.


403
404
405
406
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 403

def swap(node_or_tags)
  replace(node_or_tags)
  self
end

#text?Boolean

Returns true if this is a Text node

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1155
1156
1157
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1155

def text?
  type == TEXT_NODE
end

#to_html(options = {}) ⇒ Object

Serialize this Node to HTML

doc.to_html

See Node#write_to for a list of options. For formatted output, use Node#to_xhtml instead.


1306
1307
1308
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1306

def to_html(options = {})
  to_format(SaveOptions::DEFAULT_HTML, options)
end

#to_sObject

Turn this node in to a string. If the document is HTML, this method returns html. If the document is XML, this method returns XML.


1190
1191
1192
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1190

def to_s
  document.xml? ? to_xml : to_html
end

#to_xhtml(options = {}) ⇒ Object

Serialize this Node to XHTML using options

doc.to_xhtml(:indent => 5, :encoding => 'UTF-8')

See Node#write_to for a list of options


1327
1328
1329
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1327

def to_xhtml(options = {})
  to_format(SaveOptions::DEFAULT_XHTML, options)
end

#to_xml(options = {}) ⇒ Object

Serialize this Node to XML using options

doc.to_xml(:indent => 5, :encoding => 'UTF-8')

See Node#write_to for a list of options


1316
1317
1318
1319
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1316

def to_xml(options = {})
  options[:save_with] ||= SaveOptions::DEFAULT_XML
  serialize(options)
end

#traverse {|_self| ... } ⇒ Object

Yields self and all children to block recursively.

Yields:

  • (_self)

Yield Parameters:


1233
1234
1235
1236
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1233

def traverse(&block)
  children.each { |j| j.traverse(&block) }
  yield(self)
end

:call-seq:

unlink() → self

Unlink this node from its current context.


1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
# File 'ext/nokogiri/xml_node.c', line 1004

static VALUE
unlink_node(VALUE self)
{
  xmlNodePtr node;
  Noko_Node_Get_Struct(self, xmlNode, node);
  xmlUnlinkNode(node);
  noko_xml_document_pin_node(node);
  return self;
}

#value?(value) ⇒ Boolean

Does this Node's attributes include <value>

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

623
624
625
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 623

def value?(value)
  values.include?(value)
end

#valuesObject

Get the attribute values for this Node.


617
618
619
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 617

def values
  attribute_nodes.map(&:value)
end

#wrap(node_or_tags) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

wrap(markup) -> self
wrap(node) -> self

Wrap this Node with the node parsed from markup or a dup of the node.

Parameters
  • markup (String) Markup that is parsed and used as the wrapper. This node's parent, if it exists, is used as the context node for parsing; otherwise the associated document is used. If the parsed fragment has multiple roots, the first root node is used as the wrapper.

  • node (Nokogiri::XML::Node) An element that is `#dup`ed and used as the wrapper.

Returns

self, to support chaining.

Also see NodeSet#wrap

Example with a String argument:

doc = Nokogiri::HTML5(<<~HTML)
  <html><body>
    <a>asdf</a>
  </body></html>
HTML
doc.at_css("a").wrap("<div></div>")
doc.to_html
# => <html><head></head><body>
#      <div><a>asdf</a></div>
#    </body></html>

Example with a Node argument:

doc = Nokogiri::HTML5(<<~HTML)
  <html><body>
    <a>asdf</a>
  </body></html>
HTML
doc.at_css("a").wrap(doc.create_element("div"))
doc.to_html
# <html><head></head><body>
#   <div><a>asdf</a></div>
# </body></html>

223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 223

def wrap(node_or_tags)
  case node_or_tags
  when String
    context_node = parent || document
    new_parent = context_node.coerce(node_or_tags).first
    if new_parent.nil?
      raise "Failed to parse '#{node_or_tags}' in the context of a '#{context_node.name}' element"
    end
  when XML::Node
    new_parent = node_or_tags.dup
  else
    raise ArgumentError, "Requires a String or Node argument, and cannot accept a #{node_or_tags.class}"
  end

  if parent
    add_next_sibling(new_parent)
  else
    new_parent.unlink
  end
  new_parent.add_child(self)

  self
end

#write_html_to(io, options = {}) ⇒ Object

Write Node as HTML to io with options

See Node#write_to for a list of options


1375
1376
1377
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1375

def write_html_to(io, options = {})
  write_format_to(SaveOptions::DEFAULT_HTML, io, options)
end

#write_to(io, *options) {|config| ... } ⇒ Object

Write Node to io with options. options modify the output of this method. Valid options are:

  • :encoding for changing the encoding

  • :indent_text the indentation text, defaults to one space

  • :indent the number of :indent_text to use, defaults to 2

  • :save_with a combination of SaveOptions constants.

To save with UTF-8 indented twice:

node.write_to(io, :encoding => 'UTF-8', :indent => 2)

To save indented with two dashes:

node.write_to(io, :indent_text => '-', :indent => 2)

Yields:

  • (config)

1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1348

def write_to(io, *options)
  options = options.first.is_a?(Hash) ? options.shift : {}
  encoding = options[:encoding] || options[0]
  if Nokogiri.jruby?
    save_options = options[:save_with] || options[1]
    indent_times = options[:indent] || 0
  else
    save_options = options[:save_with] || options[1] || SaveOptions::FORMAT
    indent_times = options[:indent] || 2
  end
  indent_text = options[:indent_text] || " "

  # Any string times 0 returns an empty string. Therefore, use the same
  # string instead of generating a new empty string for every node with
  # zero indentation.
  indentation = indent_times.zero? ? "" : (indent_text * indent_times)

  config = SaveOptions.new(save_options.to_i)
  yield config if block_given?

  native_write_to(io, encoding, indentation, config.options)
end

#write_xhtml_to(io, options = {}) ⇒ Object

Write Node as XHTML to io with options

See Node#write_to for a list of options


1383
1384
1385
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1383

def write_xhtml_to(io, options = {})
  write_format_to(SaveOptions::DEFAULT_XHTML, io, options)
end

#write_xml_to(io, options = {}) ⇒ Object

Write Node as XML to io with options

doc.write_xml_to io, :encoding => 'UTF-8'

See Node#write_to for a list of options


1393
1394
1395
1396
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1393

def write_xml_to(io, options = {})
  options[:save_with] ||= SaveOptions::DEFAULT_XML
  write_to(io, options)
end

#xml?Boolean

Returns true if this is an XML::Document node

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1135
1136
1137
# File 'lib/nokogiri/xml/node.rb', line 1135

def xml?
  type == DOCUMENT_NODE
end