Class: File

Inherits:
IO show all
Defined in:
file.c

Overview

A File is an abstraction of any file object accessible by the program and is closely associated with class IO. File includes the methods of module FileTest as class methods, allowing you to write (for example) File.exist?("foo").

In the description of File methods, permission bits are a platform-specific set of bits that indicate permissions of a file. On Unix-based systems, permissions are viewed as a set of three octets, for the owner, the group, and the rest of the world. For each of these entities, permissions may be set to read, write, or execute the file:

The permission bits 0644 (in octal) would thus be interpreted as read/write for owner, and read-only for group and other. Higher-order bits may also be used to indicate the type of file (plain, directory, pipe, socket, and so on) and various other special features. If the permissions are for a directory, the meaning of the execute bit changes; when set the directory can be searched.

On non-Posix operating systems, there may be only the ability to make a file read-only or read-write. In this case, the remaining permission bits will be synthesized to resemble typical values. For instance, on Windows NT the default permission bits are 0644, which means read/write for owner, read-only for all others. The only change that can be made is to make the file read-only, which is reported as 0444.

Various constants for the methods in File can be found in File::Constants.

Defined Under Namespace

Modules: Constants Classes: Stat

Constant Summary collapse

Separator =

separates directory parts in path

separator
SEPARATOR =

separates directory parts in path

separator
ALT_SEPARATOR =

platform specific alternative separator

Qnil
PATH_SEPARATOR =

path list separator

rb_fstring_cstr(PATH_SEP)

Constants inherited from IO

IO::PRIORITY, IO::READABLE, IO::SEEK_CUR, IO::SEEK_DATA, IO::SEEK_END, IO::SEEK_HOLE, IO::SEEK_SET, IO::WRITABLE

Constants included from Constants

Constants::APPEND, Constants::BINARY, Constants::CREAT, Constants::DIRECT, Constants::DSYNC, Constants::EXCL, Constants::LOCK_EX, Constants::LOCK_NB, Constants::LOCK_SH, Constants::LOCK_UN, Constants::NOATIME, Constants::NOCTTY, Constants::NOFOLLOW, Constants::NONBLOCK, Constants::NULL, Constants::RDONLY, Constants::RDWR, Constants::RSYNC, Constants::SHARE_DELETE, Constants::SYNC, Constants::TMPFILE, Constants::TRUNC, Constants::WRONLY

Class Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Methods inherited from IO

#<<, #advise, #autoclose=, #autoclose?, #binmode, #binmode?, binread, binwrite, #close, #close_on_exec=, #close_on_exec?, #close_read, #close_write, #closed?, copy_stream, #each, #each_byte, #each_char, #each_codepoint, #each_line, #eof, #eof?, #external_encoding, #fcntl, #fdatasync, #fileno, #flush, for_fd, foreach, #fsync, #getbyte, #getc, #gets, #initialize_copy, #inspect, #internal_encoding, #ioctl, #isatty, #lineno, #lineno=, new, #pid, pipe, popen, #pos, #pos=, #pread, #print, #printf, #putc, #puts, #pwrite, read, #read, #readbyte, #readchar, #readline, #readlines, readlines, #readpartial, #reopen, #rewind, #seek, select, #set_encoding, #set_encoding_by_bom, #stat, #sync, #sync=, sysopen, #sysread, #sysseek, #syswrite, #tell, #to_io, try_convert, #tty?, #ungetbyte, #ungetc, write, #write

Methods included from Enumerable

#all?, #any?, #chain, #chunk, #chunk_while, #collect, #collect_concat, #count, #cycle, #detect, #drop, #drop_while, #each_cons, #each_entry, #each_slice, #each_with_index, #each_with_object, #entries, #filter, #filter_map, #find, #find_all, #find_index, #first, #flat_map, #grep, #grep_v, #group_by, #include?, #inject, #lazy, #map, #max, #max_by, #member?, #min, #min_by, #minmax, #minmax_by, #none?, #one?, #partition, #reduce, #reject, #reverse_each, #select, #slice_after, #slice_before, #slice_when, #sort, #sort_by, #sum, #take, #take_while, #tally, #to_a, #to_h, #uniq, #zip

Constructor Details

#new(filename, mode = "r"[, opt]) ⇒ File #new(filename[, mode [, perm]][, opt]) ⇒ File

Opens the file named by filename according to the given mode and returns a new File object.

See IO.new for a description of mode and opt.

If a file is being created, permission bits may be given in perm. These mode and permission bits are platform dependent; on Unix systems, see open(2) and chmod(2) man pages for details.

The new File object is buffered mode (or non-sync mode), unless filename is a tty. See IO#flush, IO#fsync, IO#fdatasync, and IO#sync= about sync mode.

Examples

f = File.new("testfile", "r")
f = File.new("newfile",  "w+")
f = File.new("newfile", File::CREAT|File::TRUNC|File::RDWR, 0644)

Overloads:

  • #new(filename, mode = "r"[, opt]) ⇒ File
  • #new(filename[, mode [, perm]][, opt]) ⇒ File

8558
8559
8560
8561
8562
8563
8564
8565
8566
8567
8568
8569
8570
8571
8572
8573
8574
8575
# File 'io.c', line 8558

static VALUE
rb_file_initialize(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
    if (RFILE(io)->fptr) {
	rb_raise(rb_eRuntimeError, "reinitializing File");
    }
    if (0 < argc && argc < 3) {
	VALUE fd = rb_check_to_int(argv[0]);

	if (!NIL_P(fd)) {
	    argv[0] = fd;
	    return rb_io_initialize(argc, argv, io);
	}
    }
    rb_open_file(argc, argv, io);

    return io;
}

Class Method Details

.absolute_path(file_name[, dir_string]) ⇒ Object

Converts a pathname to an absolute pathname. Relative paths are referenced from the current working directory of the process unless dir_string is given, in which case it will be used as the starting point. If the given pathname starts with a “~'' it is NOT expanded, it is treated as a normal directory name.

File.absolute_path("~oracle/bin")       #=> "<relative_path>/~oracle/bin"

4143
4144
4145
4146
4147
# File 'file.c', line 4143

static VALUE
s_absolute_path(int c, const VALUE * v, VALUE _)
{
    return rb_file_s_absolute_path(c, v);
}

.absolute_path?(file_name) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if file_name is an absolute path, and false otherwise.

File.absolute_path?("c:/foo")     #=> false (on Linux), true (on Windows)

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

4159
4160
4161
4162
4163
4164
4165
4166
# File 'file.c', line 4159

static VALUE
s_absolute_path_p(VALUE klass, VALUE fname)
{
    VALUE path = rb_get_path(fname);

    if (!rb_is_absolute_path(RSTRING_PTR(path))) return Qfalse;
    return Qtrue;
}

.atime(file_name) ⇒ Time

Returns the last access time for the named file as a Time object.

file_name can be an IO object.

File.atime("testfile")   #=> Wed Apr 09 08:51:48 CDT 2003

Returns:


2320
2321
2322
2323
2324
2325
2326
2327
2328
2329
2330
2331
# File 'file.c', line 2320

static VALUE
rb_file_s_atime(VALUE klass, VALUE fname)
{
    struct stat st;

    if (rb_stat(fname, &st) < 0) {
	int e = errno;
	FilePathValue(fname);
	rb_syserr_fail_path(e, fname);
    }
    return stat_atime(&st);
}

.basename(file_name[, suffix]) ⇒ Object

Returns the last component of the filename given in file_name (after first stripping trailing separators), which can be formed using both File::SEPARATOR and File::ALT_SEPARATOR as the separator when File::ALT_SEPARATOR is not nil. If suffix is given and present at the end of file_name, it is removed. If suffix is “.*”, any extension will be removed.

File.basename("/home/gumby/work/ruby.rb")          #=> "ruby.rb"
File.basename("/home/gumby/work/ruby.rb", ".rb")   #=> "ruby"
File.basename("/home/gumby/work/ruby.rb", ".*")    #=> "ruby"

4628
4629
4630
4631
4632
4633
4634
4635
4636
4637
4638
4639
4640
4641
4642
4643
4644
4645
4646
4647
4648
4649
4650
4651
4652
4653
4654
4655
4656
4657
4658
4659
4660
4661
4662
4663
4664
4665
4666
4667
4668
4669
4670
# File 'file.c', line 4628

static VALUE
rb_file_s_basename(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE _)
{
    VALUE fname, fext, basename;
    const char *name, *p;
    long f, n;
    rb_encoding *enc;

    fext = Qnil;
    if (rb_check_arity(argc, 1, 2) == 2) {
	fext = argv[1];
	StringValue(fext);
	enc = check_path_encoding(fext);
    }
    fname = argv[0];
    FilePathStringValue(fname);
    if (NIL_P(fext) || !(enc = rb_enc_compatible(fname, fext))) {
	enc = rb_enc_get(fname);
	fext = Qnil;
    }
    if ((n = RSTRING_LEN(fname)) == 0 || !*(name = RSTRING_PTR(fname)))
	return rb_str_new_shared(fname);

    p = ruby_enc_find_basename(name, &f, &n, enc);
    if (n >= 0) {
	if (NIL_P(fext)) {
	    f = n;
	}
	else {
	    const char *fp;
	    fp = StringValueCStr(fext);
	    if (!(f = rmext(p, f, n, fp, RSTRING_LEN(fext), enc))) {
		f = n;
	    }
	    RB_GC_GUARD(fext);
	}
	if (f == RSTRING_LEN(fname)) return rb_str_new_shared(fname);
    }

    basename = rb_str_new(p, f);
    rb_enc_copy(basename, fname);
    return basename;
}

.birthtime(fname) ⇒ Object


2475
2476
2477
2478
2479
2480
2481
2482
2483
2484
2485
2486
# File 'file.c', line 2475

RUBY_FUNC_EXPORTED VALUE
rb_file_s_birthtime(VALUE klass, VALUE fname)
{
    statx_data st;

    if (rb_statx(fname, &st, STATX_BTIME) < 0) {
	int e = errno;
	FilePathValue(fname);
	rb_syserr_fail_path(e, fname);
    }
    return statx_birthtime(&st, fname);
}

.blockdev?(file_name) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if the named file is a block device.

file_name can be an IO object.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
# File 'file.c', line 1726

static VALUE
rb_file_blockdev_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
#ifndef S_ISBLK
#   ifdef S_IFBLK
#	define S_ISBLK(m) (((m) & S_IFMT) == S_IFBLK)
#   else
#	define S_ISBLK(m) (0)  /* anytime false */
#   endif
#endif

#ifdef S_ISBLK
    struct stat st;

    if (rb_stat(fname, &st) < 0) return Qfalse;
    if (S_ISBLK(st.st_mode)) return Qtrue;

#endif
    return Qfalse;
}

.chardev?(file_name) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if the named file is a character device.

file_name can be an IO object.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
1762
1763
1764
1765
1766
1767
1768
# File 'file.c', line 1755

static VALUE
rb_file_chardev_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
#ifndef S_ISCHR
#   define S_ISCHR(m) (((m) & S_IFMT) == S_IFCHR)
#endif

    struct stat st;

    if (rb_stat(fname, &st) < 0) return Qfalse;
    if (S_ISCHR(st.st_mode)) return Qtrue;

    return Qfalse;
}

.chmod(mode_int, file_name, ...) ⇒ Integer

Changes permission bits on the named file(s) to the bit pattern represented by mode_int. Actual effects are operating system dependent (see the beginning of this section). On Unix systems, see chmod(2) for details. Returns the number of files processed.

File.chmod(0644, "testfile", "out")   #=> 2

Returns:


2565
2566
2567
2568
2569
2570
2571
2572
2573
2574
# File 'file.c', line 2565

static VALUE
rb_file_s_chmod(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE _)
{
    mode_t mode;

    apply2args(1);
    mode = NUM2MODET(*argv++);

    return apply2files(chmod_internal, argc, argv, &mode);
}

.chown(owner_int, group_int, file_name, ...) ⇒ Integer

Changes the owner and group of the named file(s) to the given numeric owner and group id's. Only a process with superuser privileges may change the owner of a file. The current owner of a file may change the file's group to any group to which the owner belongs. A nil or -1 owner or group id is ignored. Returns the number of files processed.

File.chown(nil, 100, "testfile")

Returns:


2696
2697
2698
2699
2700
2701
2702
2703
2704
2705
2706
# File 'file.c', line 2696

static VALUE
rb_file_s_chown(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE _)
{
    struct chown_args arg;

    apply2args(2);
    arg.owner = to_uid(*argv++);
    arg.group = to_gid(*argv++);

    return apply2files(chown_internal, argc, argv, &arg);
}

.ctime(file_name) ⇒ Time

Returns the change time for the named file (the time at which directory information about the file was changed, not the file itself).

file_name can be an IO object.

Note that on Windows (NTFS), returns creation time (birth time).

File.ctime("testfile")   #=> Wed Apr 09 08:53:13 CDT 2003

Returns:


2421
2422
2423
2424
2425
2426
2427
2428
2429
2430
2431
2432
# File 'file.c', line 2421

static VALUE
rb_file_s_ctime(VALUE klass, VALUE fname)
{
    struct stat st;

    if (rb_stat(fname, &st) < 0) {
	int e = errno;
	FilePathValue(fname);
	rb_syserr_fail_path(e, fname);
    }
    return stat_ctime(&st);
}

.delete(file_name, ...) ⇒ Integer .unlink(file_name, ...) ⇒ Integer

Deletes the named files, returning the number of names passed as arguments. Raises an exception on any error. Since the underlying implementation relies on the unlink(2) system call, the type of exception raised depends on its error type (see linux.die.net/man/2/unlink) and has the form of e.g. Errno::ENOENT.

See also Dir::rmdir.

Overloads:


3167
3168
3169
3170
3171
# File 'file.c', line 3167

static VALUE
rb_file_s_unlink(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    return apply2files(unlink_internal, argc, argv, 0);
}

.directory?(fname) ⇒ Boolean

call-seq:

File.directory?(file_name)   ->  true or false

Returns true if the named file is a directory, or a symlink that points at a directory, and false otherwise.

file_name can be an IO object.

File.directory?(".")

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617
# File 'file.c', line 1605

VALUE
rb_file_directory_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
#ifndef S_ISDIR
#   define S_ISDIR(m) (((m) & S_IFMT) == S_IFDIR)
#endif

    struct stat st;

    if (rb_stat(fname, &st) < 0) return Qfalse;
    if (S_ISDIR(st.st_mode)) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

.dirname(file_name) ⇒ Object

Returns all components of the filename given in file_name except the last one (after first stripping trailing separators). The filename can be formed using both File::SEPARATOR and File::ALT_SEPARATOR as the separator when File::ALT_SEPARATOR is not nil.

File.dirname("/home/gumby/work/ruby.rb")   #=> "/home/gumby/work"

4685
4686
4687
4688
4689
# File 'file.c', line 4685

static VALUE
rb_file_s_dirname(VALUE klass, VALUE fname)
{
    return rb_file_dirname(fname);
}

.zero?(file_name) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if the named file exists and has a zero size.

file_name can be an IO object.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
# File 'file.c', line 2027

static VALUE
rb_file_zero_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
    struct stat st;

    if (rb_stat(fname, &st) < 0) return Qfalse;
    if (st.st_size == 0) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

.executable?(file_name) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if the named file is executable by the effective user and group id of this process. See eaccess(3).

Windows does not support execute permissions separately from read permissions. On Windows, a file is only considered executable if it ends in .bat, .cmd, .com, or .exe.

Note that some OS-level security features may cause this to return true even though the file is not executable by the effective user/group.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
# File 'file.c', line 1962

static VALUE
rb_file_executable_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
    if (rb_eaccess(fname, X_OK) < 0) return Qfalse;
    return Qtrue;
}

.executable_real?(file_name) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if the named file is executable by the real user and group id of this process. See access(3).

Windows does not support execute permissions separately from read permissions. On Windows, a file is only considered executable if it ends in .bat, .cmd, .com, or .exe.

Note that some OS-level security features may cause this to return true even though the file is not executable by the real user/group.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
# File 'file.c', line 1984

static VALUE
rb_file_executable_real_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
    if (rb_access(fname, X_OK) < 0) return Qfalse;
    return Qtrue;
}

.exist?(file_name) ⇒ Boolean

Return true if the named file exists.

file_name can be an IO object.

“file exists” means that stat() or fstat() system call is successful.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
# File 'file.c', line 1781

static VALUE
rb_file_exist_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
    struct stat st;

    if (rb_stat(fname, &st) < 0) return Qfalse;
    return Qtrue;
}

.exists?(fname) ⇒ Boolean

:nodoc:

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803
1804
1805
# File 'file.c', line 1791

static VALUE
rb_file_exists_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
    const char *s = "FileTest#exist?";
    if (obj == rb_mFileTest) {
	s = "FileTest.exist?";
    }
    else if (obj == rb_cFile ||
	     (RB_TYPE_P(obj, T_CLASS) &&
	      RTEST(rb_class_inherited_p(obj, rb_cFile)))) {
	s = "File.exist?";
    }
    rb_warn_deprecated("%.*ss?", s, (int)(strlen(s)-1), s);
    return rb_file_exist_p(obj, fname);
}

.expand_path(file_name[, dir_string]) ⇒ Object

Converts a pathname to an absolute pathname. Relative paths are referenced from the current working directory of the process unless dir_string is given, in which case it will be used as the starting point. The given pathname may start with a “~'', which expands to the process owner's home directory (the environment variable HOME must be set correctly). “~user'' expands to the named user's home directory.

File.expand_path("~oracle/bin")           #=> "/home/oracle/bin"

A simple example of using dir_string is as follows.

File.expand_path("ruby", "/usr/bin")      #=> "/usr/bin/ruby"

A more complex example which also resolves parent directory is as follows. Suppose we are in bin/mygem and want the absolute path of lib/mygem.rb.

File.expand_path("../../lib/mygem.rb", __FILE__)
#=> ".../path/to/project/lib/mygem.rb"

So first it resolves the parent of __FILE__, that is bin/, then go to the parent, the root of the project and appends lib/mygem.rb.


4110
4111
4112
4113
4114
# File 'file.c', line 4110

static VALUE
s_expand_path(int c, const VALUE * v, VALUE _)
{
    return rb_file_s_expand_path(c, v);
}

.extname(path) ⇒ String

Returns the extension (the portion of file name in path starting from the last period).

If path is a dotfile, or starts with a period, then the starting dot is not dealt with the start of the extension.

An empty string will also be returned when the period is the last character in path.

On Windows, trailing dots are truncated.

File.extname("test.rb")         #=> ".rb"
File.extname("a/b/d/test.rb")   #=> ".rb"
File.extname(".a/b/d/test.rb")  #=> ".rb"
File.extname("foo.")            #=> "" on Windows
File.extname("foo.")            #=> "." on non-Windows
File.extname("test")            #=> ""
File.extname(".profile")        #=> ""
File.extname(".profile.sh")     #=> ".sh"

Returns:


4824
4825
4826
4827
4828
4829
4830
4831
4832
4833
4834
4835
4836
4837
4838
4839
# File 'file.c', line 4824

static VALUE
rb_file_s_extname(VALUE klass, VALUE fname)
{
    const char *name, *e;
    long len;
    VALUE extname;

    FilePathStringValue(fname);
    name = StringValueCStr(fname);
    len = RSTRING_LEN(fname);
    e = ruby_enc_find_extname(name, &len, rb_enc_get(fname));
    if (len < 1)
	return rb_str_new(0, 0);
    extname = rb_str_subseq(fname, e - name, len); /* keep the dot, too! */
    return extname;
}

.file?(file) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if the named file exists and is a regular file.

file can be an IO object.

If the file argument is a symbolic link, it will resolve the symbolic link and use the file referenced by the link.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
# File 'file.c', line 2007

static VALUE
rb_file_file_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
    struct stat st;

    if (rb_stat(fname, &st) < 0) return Qfalse;
    if (S_ISREG(st.st_mode)) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

.fnmatch(pattern, path, [flags]) ⇒ Boolean .fnmatch?(pattern, path, [flags]) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if path matches against pattern. The pattern is not a regular expression; instead it follows rules similar to shell filename globbing. It may contain the following metacharacters:

*

Matches any file. Can be restricted by other values in the glob. Equivalent to / .* /x in regexp.

*

Matches all files regular files

c*

Matches all files beginning with c

*c

Matches all files ending with c

*c*

Matches all files that have c in them (including at the beginning or end).

To match hidden files (that start with a . set the File::FNM_DOTMATCH flag.

**

Matches directories recursively or files expansively.

?

Matches any one character. Equivalent to /.{1}/ in regexp.

[set]

Matches any one character in set. Behaves exactly like character sets in Regexp, including set negation ([^a-z]).

\

Escapes the next metacharacter.

{a,b}

Matches pattern a and pattern b if File::FNM_EXTGLOB flag is enabled. Behaves like a Regexp union ((?:a|b)).

flags is a bitwise OR of the FNM_XXX constants. The same glob pattern and flags are used by Dir::glob.

Examples:

File.fnmatch('cat',       'cat')        #=> true  # match entire string
File.fnmatch('cat',       'category')   #=> false # only match partial string

File.fnmatch('c{at,ub}s', 'cats')                    #=> false # { } isn't supported by default
File.fnmatch('c{at,ub}s', 'cats', File::FNM_EXTGLOB) #=> true  # { } is supported on FNM_EXTGLOB

File.fnmatch('c?t',     'cat')          #=> true  # '?' match only 1 character
File.fnmatch('c??t',    'cat')          #=> false # ditto
File.fnmatch('c*',      'cats')         #=> true  # '*' match 0 or more characters
File.fnmatch('c*t',     'c/a/b/t')      #=> true  # ditto
File.fnmatch('ca[a-z]', 'cat')          #=> true  # inclusive bracket expression
File.fnmatch('ca[^t]',  'cat')          #=> false # exclusive bracket expression ('^' or '!')

File.fnmatch('cat', 'CAT')                     #=> false # case sensitive
File.fnmatch('cat', 'CAT', File::FNM_CASEFOLD) #=> true  # case insensitive
File.fnmatch('cat', 'CAT', File::FNM_SYSCASE)  #=> true or false # depends on the system default

File.fnmatch('?',   '/', File::FNM_PATHNAME)  #=> false # wildcard doesn't match '/' on FNM_PATHNAME
File.fnmatch('*',   '/', File::FNM_PATHNAME)  #=> false # ditto
File.fnmatch('[/]', '/', File::FNM_PATHNAME)  #=> false # ditto

File.fnmatch('\?',   '?')                       #=> true  # escaped wildcard becomes ordinary
File.fnmatch('\a',   'a')                       #=> true  # escaped ordinary remains ordinary
File.fnmatch('\a',   '\a', File::FNM_NOESCAPE)  #=> true  # FNM_NOESCAPE makes '\' ordinary
File.fnmatch('[\?]', '?')                       #=> true  # can escape inside bracket expression

File.fnmatch('*',   '.profile')                      #=> false # wildcard doesn't match leading
File.fnmatch('*',   '.profile', File::FNM_DOTMATCH)  #=> true  # period by default.
File.fnmatch('.*',  '.profile')                      #=> true

rbfiles = '**' '/' '*.rb' # you don't have to do like this. just write in single string.
File.fnmatch(rbfiles, 'main.rb')                    #=> false
File.fnmatch(rbfiles, './main.rb')                  #=> false
File.fnmatch(rbfiles, 'lib/song.rb')                #=> true
File.fnmatch('**.rb', 'main.rb')                    #=> true
File.fnmatch('**.rb', './main.rb')                  #=> false
File.fnmatch('**.rb', 'lib/song.rb')                #=> true
File.fnmatch('*',           'dave/.profile')                      #=> true

pattern = '*' '/' '*'
File.fnmatch(pattern, 'dave/.profile', File::FNM_PATHNAME)  #=> false
File.fnmatch(pattern, 'dave/.profile', File::FNM_PATHNAME | File::FNM_DOTMATCH) #=> true

pattern = '**' '/' 'foo'
File.fnmatch(pattern, 'a/b/c/foo', File::FNM_PATHNAME)     #=> true
File.fnmatch(pattern, '/a/b/c/foo', File::FNM_PATHNAME)    #=> true
File.fnmatch(pattern, 'c:/a/b/c/foo', File::FNM_PATHNAME)  #=> true
File.fnmatch(pattern, 'a/.b/c/foo', File::FNM_PATHNAME)    #=> false
File.fnmatch(pattern, 'a/.b/c/foo', File::FNM_PATHNAME | File::FNM_DOTMATCH) #=> true

Overloads:

  • .fnmatch(pattern, path, [flags]) ⇒ Boolean

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)
  • .fnmatch?(pattern, path, [flags]) ⇒ Boolean

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)

3269
3270
3271
3272
3273
3274
3275
3276
3277
3278
3279
3280
3281
3282
3283
3284
3285
3286
3287
3288
3289
3290
3291
3292
3293
3294
3295
3296
3297
3298
3299
3300
3301
3302
# File 'dir.c', line 3269

static VALUE
file_s_fnmatch(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE pattern, path;
    VALUE rflags;
    int flags;

    if (rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "21", &pattern, &path, &rflags) == 3)
	flags = NUM2INT(rflags);
    else
	flags = 0;

    StringValueCStr(pattern);
    FilePathStringValue(path);

    if (flags & FNM_EXTGLOB) {
	struct brace_args args;

	args.value = path;
	args.flags = flags;
	if (ruby_brace_expand(RSTRING_PTR(pattern), flags, fnmatch_brace,
			      (VALUE)&args, rb_enc_get(pattern), pattern) > 0)
	    return Qtrue;
    }
    else {
	rb_encoding *enc = rb_enc_compatible(pattern, path);
	if (!enc) return Qfalse;
	if (fnmatch(RSTRING_PTR(pattern), enc, RSTRING_PTR(path), flags) == 0)
	    return Qtrue;
    }
    RB_GC_GUARD(pattern);

    return Qfalse;
}

.fnmatch(pattern, path, [flags]) ⇒ Boolean .fnmatch?(pattern, path, [flags]) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if path matches against pattern. The pattern is not a regular expression; instead it follows rules similar to shell filename globbing. It may contain the following metacharacters:

*

Matches any file. Can be restricted by other values in the glob. Equivalent to / .* /x in regexp.

*

Matches all files regular files

c*

Matches all files beginning with c

*c

Matches all files ending with c

*c*

Matches all files that have c in them (including at the beginning or end).

To match hidden files (that start with a . set the File::FNM_DOTMATCH flag.

**

Matches directories recursively or files expansively.

?

Matches any one character. Equivalent to /.{1}/ in regexp.

[set]

Matches any one character in set. Behaves exactly like character sets in Regexp, including set negation ([^a-z]).

\

Escapes the next metacharacter.

{a,b}

Matches pattern a and pattern b if File::FNM_EXTGLOB flag is enabled. Behaves like a Regexp union ((?:a|b)).

flags is a bitwise OR of the FNM_XXX constants. The same glob pattern and flags are used by Dir::glob.

Examples:

File.fnmatch('cat',       'cat')        #=> true  # match entire string
File.fnmatch('cat',       'category')   #=> false # only match partial string

File.fnmatch('c{at,ub}s', 'cats')                    #=> false # { } isn't supported by default
File.fnmatch('c{at,ub}s', 'cats', File::FNM_EXTGLOB) #=> true  # { } is supported on FNM_EXTGLOB

File.fnmatch('c?t',     'cat')          #=> true  # '?' match only 1 character
File.fnmatch('c??t',    'cat')          #=> false # ditto
File.fnmatch('c*',      'cats')         #=> true  # '*' match 0 or more characters
File.fnmatch('c*t',     'c/a/b/t')      #=> true  # ditto
File.fnmatch('ca[a-z]', 'cat')          #=> true  # inclusive bracket expression
File.fnmatch('ca[^t]',  'cat')          #=> false # exclusive bracket expression ('^' or '!')

File.fnmatch('cat', 'CAT')                     #=> false # case sensitive
File.fnmatch('cat', 'CAT', File::FNM_CASEFOLD) #=> true  # case insensitive
File.fnmatch('cat', 'CAT', File::FNM_SYSCASE)  #=> true or false # depends on the system default

File.fnmatch('?',   '/', File::FNM_PATHNAME)  #=> false # wildcard doesn't match '/' on FNM_PATHNAME
File.fnmatch('*',   '/', File::FNM_PATHNAME)  #=> false # ditto
File.fnmatch('[/]', '/', File::FNM_PATHNAME)  #=> false # ditto

File.fnmatch('\?',   '?')                       #=> true  # escaped wildcard becomes ordinary
File.fnmatch('\a',   'a')                       #=> true  # escaped ordinary remains ordinary
File.fnmatch('\a',   '\a', File::FNM_NOESCAPE)  #=> true  # FNM_NOESCAPE makes '\' ordinary
File.fnmatch('[\?]', '?')                       #=> true  # can escape inside bracket expression

File.fnmatch('*',   '.profile')                      #=> false # wildcard doesn't match leading
File.fnmatch('*',   '.profile', File::FNM_DOTMATCH)  #=> true  # period by default.
File.fnmatch('.*',  '.profile')                      #=> true

rbfiles = '**' '/' '*.rb' # you don't have to do like this. just write in single string.
File.fnmatch(rbfiles, 'main.rb')                    #=> false
File.fnmatch(rbfiles, './main.rb')                  #=> false
File.fnmatch(rbfiles, 'lib/song.rb')                #=> true
File.fnmatch('**.rb', 'main.rb')                    #=> true
File.fnmatch('**.rb', './main.rb')                  #=> false
File.fnmatch('**.rb', 'lib/song.rb')                #=> true
File.fnmatch('*',           'dave/.profile')                      #=> true

pattern = '*' '/' '*'
File.fnmatch(pattern, 'dave/.profile', File::FNM_PATHNAME)  #=> false
File.fnmatch(pattern, 'dave/.profile', File::FNM_PATHNAME | File::FNM_DOTMATCH) #=> true

pattern = '**' '/' 'foo'
File.fnmatch(pattern, 'a/b/c/foo', File::FNM_PATHNAME)     #=> true
File.fnmatch(pattern, '/a/b/c/foo', File::FNM_PATHNAME)    #=> true
File.fnmatch(pattern, 'c:/a/b/c/foo', File::FNM_PATHNAME)  #=> true
File.fnmatch(pattern, 'a/.b/c/foo', File::FNM_PATHNAME)    #=> false
File.fnmatch(pattern, 'a/.b/c/foo', File::FNM_PATHNAME | File::FNM_DOTMATCH) #=> true

Overloads:

  • .fnmatch(pattern, path, [flags]) ⇒ Boolean

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)
  • .fnmatch?(pattern, path, [flags]) ⇒ Boolean

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)

3269
3270
3271
3272
3273
3274
3275
3276
3277
3278
3279
3280
3281
3282
3283
3284
3285
3286
3287
3288
3289
3290
3291
3292
3293
3294
3295
3296
3297
3298
3299
3300
3301
3302
# File 'dir.c', line 3269

static VALUE
file_s_fnmatch(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE pattern, path;
    VALUE rflags;
    int flags;

    if (rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "21", &pattern, &path, &rflags) == 3)
	flags = NUM2INT(rflags);
    else
	flags = 0;

    StringValueCStr(pattern);
    FilePathStringValue(path);

    if (flags & FNM_EXTGLOB) {
	struct brace_args args;

	args.value = path;
	args.flags = flags;
	if (ruby_brace_expand(RSTRING_PTR(pattern), flags, fnmatch_brace,
			      (VALUE)&args, rb_enc_get(pattern), pattern) > 0)
	    return Qtrue;
    }
    else {
	rb_encoding *enc = rb_enc_compatible(pattern, path);
	if (!enc) return Qfalse;
	if (fnmatch(RSTRING_PTR(pattern), enc, RSTRING_PTR(path), flags) == 0)
	    return Qtrue;
    }
    RB_GC_GUARD(pattern);

    return Qfalse;
}

.ftype(file_name) ⇒ String

Identifies the type of the named file; the return string is one of “file'', “directory'', “characterSpecial'', “blockSpecial'', “fifo'', “link'', “socket'', or “unknown''.

File.ftype("testfile")            #=> "file"
File.ftype("/dev/tty")            #=> "characterSpecial"
File.ftype("/tmp/.X11-unix/X0")   #=> "socket"

Returns:


2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299
2300
2301
2302
2303
2304
2305
2306
# File 'file.c', line 2294

static VALUE
rb_file_s_ftype(VALUE klass, VALUE fname)
{
    struct stat st;

    FilePathValue(fname);
    fname = rb_str_encode_ospath(fname);
    if (lstat_without_gvl(StringValueCStr(fname), &st) == -1) {
	rb_sys_fail_path(fname);
    }

    return rb_file_ftype(&st);
}

.grpowned?(file_name) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if the named file exists and the effective group id of the calling process is the owner of the file. Returns false on Windows.

file_name can be an IO object.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

2099
2100
2101
2102
2103
2104
2105
2106
2107
2108
2109
# File 'file.c', line 2099

static VALUE
rb_file_grpowned_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
#ifndef _WIN32
    struct stat st;

    if (rb_stat(fname, &st) < 0) return Qfalse;
    if (rb_group_member(st.st_gid)) return Qtrue;
#endif
    return Qfalse;
}

.identical?(file_1, file_2) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if the named files are identical.

file_1 and file_2 can be an IO object.

open("a", "w") {}
p File.identical?("a", "a")      #=> true
p File.identical?("a", "./a")    #=> true
File.link("a", "b")
p File.identical?("a", "b")      #=> true
File.symlink("a", "c")
p File.identical?("a", "c")      #=> true
open("d", "w") {}
p File.identical?("a", "d")      #=> false

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

2199
2200
2201
2202
2203
2204
2205
2206
2207
2208
2209
2210
2211
2212
2213
2214
# File 'file.c', line 2199

static VALUE
rb_file_identical_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname1, VALUE fname2)
{
#ifndef _WIN32
    struct stat st1, st2;

    if (rb_stat(fname1, &st1) < 0) return Qfalse;
    if (rb_stat(fname2, &st2) < 0) return Qfalse;
    if (st1.st_dev != st2.st_dev) return Qfalse;
    if (st1.st_ino != st2.st_ino) return Qfalse;
    return Qtrue;
#else
    extern VALUE rb_w32_file_identical_p(VALUE, VALUE);
    return rb_w32_file_identical_p(fname1, fname2);
#endif
}

.join(string, ...) ⇒ String

Returns a new string formed by joining the strings using "/".

File.join("usr", "mail", "gumby")   #=> "usr/mail/gumby"

Returns:


4960
4961
4962
4963
4964
# File 'file.c', line 4960

static VALUE
rb_file_s_join(VALUE klass, VALUE args)
{
    return rb_file_join(args);
}

.lchmod(mode_int, file_name, ...) ⇒ Integer

Equivalent to File::chmod, but does not follow symbolic links (so it will change the permissions associated with the link, not the file referenced by the link). Often not available.

Returns:


2637
2638
2639
2640
2641
2642
2643
2644
2645
2646
# File 'file.c', line 2637

static VALUE
rb_file_s_lchmod(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE _)
{
    mode_t mode;

    apply2args(1);
    mode = NUM2MODET(*argv++);

    return apply2files(lchmod_internal, argc, argv, &mode);
}

.lchown(owner_int, group_int, file_name, ..) ⇒ Integer

Equivalent to File::chown, but does not follow symbolic links (so it will change the owner associated with the link, not the file referenced by the link). Often not available. Returns number of files in the argument list.

Returns:


2768
2769
2770
2771
2772
2773
2774
2775
2776
2777
2778
# File 'file.c', line 2768

static VALUE
rb_file_s_lchown(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE _)
{
    struct chown_args arg;

    apply2args(2);
    arg.owner = to_uid(*argv++);
    arg.group = to_gid(*argv++);

    return apply2files(lchown_internal, argc, argv, &arg);
}

Creates a new name for an existing file using a hard link. Will not overwrite new_name if it already exists (raising a subclass of SystemCallError). Not available on all platforms.

File.link("testfile", ".testfile")   #=> 0
IO.readlines(".testfile")[0]         #=> "This is line one\n"

Returns:

  • (0)

3019
3020
3021
3022
3023
3024
3025
3026
3027
3028
3029
3030
3031
# File 'file.c', line 3019

static VALUE
rb_file_s_link(VALUE klass, VALUE from, VALUE to)
{
    FilePathValue(from);
    FilePathValue(to);
    from = rb_str_encode_ospath(from);
    to = rb_str_encode_ospath(to);

    if (link(StringValueCStr(from), StringValueCStr(to)) < 0) {
	sys_fail2(from, to);
    }
    return INT2FIX(0);
}

.lstat(file_name) ⇒ Object

Same as File::stat, but does not follow the last symbolic link. Instead, reports on the link itself.

File.symlink("testfile", "link2test")   #=> 0
File.stat("testfile").size              #=> 66
File.lstat("link2test").size            #=> 8
File.stat("link2test").size             #=> 66

1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
# File 'file.c', line 1381

static VALUE
rb_file_s_lstat(VALUE klass, VALUE fname)
{
#ifdef HAVE_LSTAT
    struct stat st;

    FilePathValue(fname);
    fname = rb_str_encode_ospath(fname);
    if (lstat_without_gvl(StringValueCStr(fname), &st) == -1) {
	rb_sys_fail_path(fname);
    }
    return rb_stat_new(&st);
#else
    return rb_file_s_stat(klass, fname);
#endif
}

.lutime(atime, mtime, file_name, ...) ⇒ Integer

Sets the access and modification times of each named file to the first two arguments. If a file is a symlink, this method acts upon the link itself as opposed to its referent; for the inverse behavior, see File.utime. Returns the number of file names in the argument list.

Returns:


2965
2966
2967
2968
2969
# File 'file.c', line 2965

static VALUE
rb_file_s_lutime(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE _)
{
    return utime_internal_i(argc, argv, TRUE);
}

.mkfifo(file_name, mode = 0666) ⇒ 0

Creates a FIFO special file with name file_name. mode specifies the FIFO's permissions. It is modified by the process's umask in the usual way: the permissions of the created file are (mode & ~umask).

Returns:

  • (0)

6104
6105
6106
6107
6108
6109
6110
6111
6112
6113
6114
6115
6116
6117
6118
6119
6120
6121
6122
6123
# File 'file.c', line 6104

static VALUE
rb_file_s_mkfifo(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE _)
{
    VALUE path;
    struct mkfifo_arg ma;

    ma.mode = 0666;
    rb_check_arity(argc, 1, 2);
    if (argc > 1) {
	ma.mode = NUM2MODET(argv[1]);
    }
    path = argv[0];
    FilePathValue(path);
    path = rb_str_encode_ospath(path);
    ma.path = RSTRING_PTR(path);
    if (rb_thread_call_without_gvl(nogvl_mkfifo, &ma, RUBY_UBF_IO, 0)) {
	rb_sys_fail_path(path);
    }
    return INT2FIX(0);
}

.mtime(file_name) ⇒ Time

Returns the modification time for the named file as a Time object.

file_name can be an IO object.

File.mtime("testfile")   #=> Tue Apr 08 12:58:04 CDT 2003

Returns:


2369
2370
2371
2372
2373
2374
2375
2376
2377
2378
2379
2380
# File 'file.c', line 2369

static VALUE
rb_file_s_mtime(VALUE klass, VALUE fname)
{
    struct stat st;

    if (rb_stat(fname, &st) < 0) {
	int e = errno;
	FilePathValue(fname);
	rb_syserr_fail_path(e, fname);
    }
    return stat_mtime(&st);
}

.open(*args) ⇒ Object

call-seq:

IO.open(fd, mode="r" [, opt])                -> io
IO.open(fd, mode="r" [, opt]) {|io| block }  -> obj

With no associated block, IO.open is a synonym for IO.new. If the optional code block is given, it will be passed io as an argument, and the IO object will automatically be closed when the block terminates. In this instance, IO.open returns the value of the block.

See IO.new for a description of the fd, mode and opt parameters.


7157
7158
7159
7160
7161
7162
7163
7164
7165
7166
7167
# File 'io.c', line 7157

static VALUE
rb_io_s_open(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    VALUE io = rb_class_new_instance_kw(argc, argv, klass, RB_PASS_CALLED_KEYWORDS);

    if (rb_block_given_p()) {
	return rb_ensure(rb_yield, io, io_close, io);
    }

    return io;
}

.owned?(file_name) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if the named file exists and the effective used id of the calling process is the owner of the file.

file_name can be an IO object.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

2068
2069
2070
2071
2072
2073
2074
2075
2076
# File 'file.c', line 2068

static VALUE
rb_file_owned_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
    struct stat st;

    if (rb_stat(fname, &st) < 0) return Qfalse;
    if (st.st_uid == geteuid()) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

.path(path) ⇒ String

Returns the string representation of the path

File.path("/dev/null")          #=> "/dev/null"
File.path(Pathname.new("/tmp")) #=> "/tmp"

Returns:


4852
4853
4854
4855
4856
# File 'file.c', line 4852

static VALUE
rb_file_s_path(VALUE klass, VALUE fname)
{
    return rb_get_path(fname);
}

.pipe?(file_name) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if the named file is a pipe.

file_name can be an IO object.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
# File 'file.c', line 1628

static VALUE
rb_file_pipe_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
#ifdef S_IFIFO
#  ifndef S_ISFIFO
#    define S_ISFIFO(m) (((m) & S_IFMT) == S_IFIFO)
#  endif

    struct stat st;

    if (rb_stat(fname, &st) < 0) return Qfalse;
    if (S_ISFIFO(st.st_mode)) return Qtrue;

#endif
    return Qfalse;
}

.readable?(file_name) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if the named file is readable by the effective user and group id of this process. See eaccess(3).

Note that some OS-level security features may cause this to return true even though the file is not readable by the effective user/group.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
# File 'file.c', line 1818

static VALUE
rb_file_readable_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
    if (rb_eaccess(fname, R_OK) < 0) return Qfalse;
    return Qtrue;
}

.readable_real?(file_name) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if the named file is readable by the real user and group id of this process. See access(3).

Note that some OS-level security features may cause this to return true even though the file is not readable by the real user/group.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
# File 'file.c', line 1836

static VALUE
rb_file_readable_real_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
    if (rb_access(fname, R_OK) < 0) return Qfalse;
    return Qtrue;
}

Returns the name of the file referenced by the given link. Not available on all platforms.

File.symlink("testfile", "link2test")   #=> 0
File.readlink("link2test")              #=> "testfile"

3078
3079
3080
3081
3082
# File 'file.c', line 3078

static VALUE
rb_file_s_readlink(VALUE klass, VALUE path)
{
    return rb_readlink(path, rb_filesystem_encoding());
}

.realdirpath(pathname[, dir_string]) ⇒ Object

Returns the real (absolute) pathname of pathname in the actual filesystem.

The real pathname doesn't contain symlinks or useless dots.

If _dir_string_ is given, it is used as a base directory
for interpreting relative pathname instead of the current directory.

The last component of the real pathname can be nonexistent.

4503
4504
4505
4506
4507
4508
4509
4510
# File 'file.c', line 4503

static VALUE
rb_file_s_realdirpath(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    VALUE basedir = (rb_check_arity(argc, 1, 2) > 1) ? argv[1] : Qnil;
    VALUE path = argv[0];
    FilePathValue(path);
    return rb_realpath_internal(basedir, path, 0);
}

.realpath(pathname[, dir_string]) ⇒ Object

Returns the real (absolute) pathname of pathname in the actual

filesystem not containing symlinks or useless dots.

If _dir_string_ is given, it is used as a base directory
for interpreting relative pathname instead of the current directory.

All components of the pathname must exist when this method is
called.

4482
4483
4484
4485
4486
4487
4488
4489
# File 'file.c', line 4482

static VALUE
rb_file_s_realpath(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    VALUE basedir = (rb_check_arity(argc, 1, 2) > 1) ? argv[1] : Qnil;
    VALUE path = argv[0];
    FilePathValue(path);
    return rb_realpath_internal(basedir, path, 1);
}

.rename(old_name, new_name) ⇒ 0

Renames the given file to the new name. Raises a SystemCallError if the file cannot be renamed.

File.rename("afile", "afile.bak")   #=> 0

Returns:

  • (0)

3196
3197
3198
3199
3200
3201
3202
3203
3204
3205
3206
3207
3208
3209
3210
3211
3212
3213
3214
3215
3216
3217
3218
3219
3220
3221
3222
3223
3224
3225
3226
3227
# File 'file.c', line 3196

static VALUE
rb_file_s_rename(VALUE klass, VALUE from, VALUE to)
{
    struct rename_args ra;
    VALUE f, t;

    FilePathValue(from);
    FilePathValue(to);
    f = rb_str_encode_ospath(from);
    t = rb_str_encode_ospath(to);
    ra.src = StringValueCStr(f);
    ra.dst = StringValueCStr(t);
#if defined __CYGWIN__
    errno = 0;
#endif
    if ((int)(VALUE)rb_thread_call_without_gvl(no_gvl_rename, &ra,
					 RUBY_UBF_IO, 0) < 0) {
	int e = errno;
#if defined DOSISH
	switch (e) {
	  case EEXIST:
	    if (chmod(ra.dst, 0666) == 0 &&
		unlink(ra.dst) == 0 &&
		rename(ra.src, ra.dst) == 0)
		return INT2FIX(0);
	}
#endif
	syserr_fail2(e, from, to);
    }

    return INT2FIX(0);
}

.setgid?(file_name) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if the named file has the setgid bit set.

file_name can be an IO object.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

2151
2152
2153
2154
2155
2156
2157
2158
2159
# File 'file.c', line 2151

static VALUE
rb_file_sgid_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
#ifdef S_ISGID
    return check3rdbyte(fname, S_ISGID);
#else
    return Qfalse;
#endif
}

.setuid?(file_name) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if the named file has the setuid bit set.

file_name can be an IO object.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

2132
2133
2134
2135
2136
2137
2138
2139
2140
# File 'file.c', line 2132

static VALUE
rb_file_suid_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
#ifdef S_ISUID
    return check3rdbyte(fname, S_ISUID);
#else
    return Qfalse;
#endif
}

.size(file_name) ⇒ Integer

Returns the size of file_name.

file_name can be an IO object.

Returns:


2225
2226
2227
2228
2229
2230
2231
2232
2233
2234
2235
2236
# File 'file.c', line 2225

static VALUE
rb_file_s_size(VALUE klass, VALUE fname)
{
    struct stat st;

    if (rb_stat(fname, &st) < 0) {
	int e = errno;
	FilePathValue(fname);
	rb_syserr_fail_path(e, fname);
    }
    return OFFT2NUM(st.st_size);
}

.size?(file_name) ⇒ Integer?

Returns nil if file_name doesn't exist or has zero size, the size of the file otherwise.

file_name can be an IO object.

Returns:


2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
# File 'file.c', line 2047

static VALUE
rb_file_size_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
    struct stat st;

    if (rb_stat(fname, &st) < 0) return Qnil;
    if (st.st_size == 0) return Qnil;
    return OFFT2NUM(st.st_size);
}

.socket?(file_name) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if the named file is a socket.

file_name can be an IO object.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
# File 'file.c', line 1690

static VALUE
rb_file_socket_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
#ifndef S_ISSOCK
#  ifdef _S_ISSOCK
#    define S_ISSOCK(m) _S_ISSOCK(m)
#  else
#    ifdef _S_IFSOCK
#      define S_ISSOCK(m) (((m) & S_IFMT) == _S_IFSOCK)
#    else
#      ifdef S_IFSOCK
#	 define S_ISSOCK(m) (((m) & S_IFMT) == S_IFSOCK)
#      endif
#    endif
#  endif
#endif

#ifdef S_ISSOCK
    struct stat st;

    if (rb_stat(fname, &st) < 0) return Qfalse;
    if (S_ISSOCK(st.st_mode)) return Qtrue;

#endif
    return Qfalse;
}

.split(file_name) ⇒ Array

Splits the given string into a directory and a file component and returns them in a two-element array. See also File::dirname and File::basename.

File.split("/home/gumby/.profile")   #=> ["/home/gumby", ".profile"]

Returns:


4869
4870
4871
4872
4873
4874
# File 'file.c', line 4869

static VALUE
rb_file_s_split(VALUE klass, VALUE path)
{
    FilePathStringValue(path);		/* get rid of converting twice */
    return rb_assoc_new(rb_file_dirname(path), rb_file_s_basename(1,&path,Qundef));
}

.stat(file_name) ⇒ Object

Returns a File::Stat object for the named file (see File::Stat).

File.stat("testfile").mtime   #=> Tue Apr 08 12:58:04 CDT 2003

1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
# File 'file.c', line 1305

static VALUE
rb_file_s_stat(VALUE klass, VALUE fname)
{
    struct stat st;

    FilePathValue(fname);
    fname = rb_str_encode_ospath(fname);
    if (stat_without_gvl(RSTRING_PTR(fname), &st) < 0) {
	rb_sys_fail_path(fname);
    }
    return rb_stat_new(&st);
}

.sticky?(file_name) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if the named file has the sticky bit set.

file_name can be an IO object.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

2170
2171
2172
2173
2174
2175
2176
2177
2178
# File 'file.c', line 2170

static VALUE
rb_file_sticky_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
#ifdef S_ISVTX
    return check3rdbyte(fname, S_ISVTX);
#else
    return Qnil;
#endif
}

Creates a symbolic link called new_name for the existing file old_name. Raises a NotImplemented exception on platforms that do not support symbolic links.

File.symlink("testfile", "link2test")   #=> 0

Returns:

  • (0)

3049
3050
3051
3052
3053
3054
3055
3056
3057
3058
3059
3060
3061
# File 'file.c', line 3049

static VALUE
rb_file_s_symlink(VALUE klass, VALUE from, VALUE to)
{
    FilePathValue(from);
    FilePathValue(to);
    from = rb_str_encode_ospath(from);
    to = rb_str_encode_ospath(to);

    if (symlink(StringValueCStr(from), StringValueCStr(to)) < 0) {
	sys_fail2(from, to);
    }
    return INT2FIX(0);
}

.symlink?(file_name) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if the named file is a symbolic link.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1678
1679
# File 'file.c', line 1652

static VALUE
rb_file_symlink_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
#ifndef S_ISLNK
#  ifdef _S_ISLNK
#    define S_ISLNK(m) _S_ISLNK(m)
#  else
#    ifdef _S_IFLNK
#      define S_ISLNK(m) (((m) & S_IFMT) == _S_IFLNK)
#    else
#      ifdef S_IFLNK
#	 define S_ISLNK(m) (((m) & S_IFMT) == S_IFLNK)
#      endif
#    endif
#  endif
#endif

#ifdef S_ISLNK
    struct stat st;

    FilePathValue(fname);
    fname = rb_str_encode_ospath(fname);
    if (lstat_without_gvl(StringValueCStr(fname), &st) < 0) return Qfalse;
    if (S_ISLNK(st.st_mode)) return Qtrue;
#endif

    return Qfalse;
}

.truncate(file_name, integer) ⇒ 0

Truncates the file file_name to be at most integer bytes long. Not available on all platforms.

f = File.new("out", "w")
f.write("1234567890")     #=> 10
f.close                   #=> nil
File.truncate("out", 5)   #=> 0
File.size("out")          #=> 5

Returns:

  • (0)

5018
5019
5020
5021
5022
5023
5024
5025
5026
5027
5028
5029
5030
5031
5032
5033
5034
5035
# File 'file.c', line 5018

static VALUE
rb_file_s_truncate(VALUE klass, VALUE path, VALUE len)
{
    struct truncate_arg ta;
    int r;

    ta.pos = NUM2POS(len);
    FilePathValue(path);
    path = rb_str_encode_ospath(path);
    ta.path = StringValueCStr(path);

    r = (int)(VALUE)rb_thread_call_without_gvl(nogvl_truncate, &ta,
						RUBY_UBF_IO, NULL);
    if (r < 0)
	rb_sys_fail_path(path);
    return INT2FIX(0);
#undef NUM2POS
}

.umaskInteger .umask(integer) ⇒ Integer

Returns the current umask value for this process. If the optional argument is given, set the umask to that value and return the previous value. Umask values are subtracted from the default permissions, so a umask of 0222 would make a file read-only for everyone.

File.umask(0006)   #=> 18
File.umask         #=> 6

Overloads:


3244
3245
3246
3247
3248
3249
3250
3251
3252
3253
3254
3255
3256
3257
3258
3259
3260
3261
# File 'file.c', line 3244

static VALUE
rb_file_s_umask(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE _)
{
    mode_t omask = 0;

    switch (argc) {
      case 0:
	omask = umask(0);
	umask(omask);
        break;
      case 1:
	omask = umask(NUM2MODET(argv[0]));
        break;
      default:
        rb_error_arity(argc, 0, 1);
    }
    return MODET2NUM(omask);
}

Deletes the named files, returning the number of names passed as arguments. Raises an exception on any error. Since the underlying implementation relies on the unlink(2) system call, the type of exception raised depends on its error type (see linux.die.net/man/2/unlink) and has the form of e.g. Errno::ENOENT.

See also Dir::rmdir.

Overloads:


3167
3168
3169
3170
3171
# File 'file.c', line 3167

static VALUE
rb_file_s_unlink(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    return apply2files(unlink_internal, argc, argv, 0);
}

.utime(atime, mtime, file_name, ...) ⇒ Integer

Sets the access and modification times of each named file to the first two arguments. If a file is a symlink, this method acts upon its referent rather than the link itself; for the inverse behavior see File.lutime. Returns the number of file names in the argument list.

Returns:


2946
2947
2948
2949
2950
# File 'file.c', line 2946

static VALUE
rb_file_s_utime(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE _)
{
    return utime_internal_i(argc, argv, FALSE);
}

.world_readable?(file_name) ⇒ Integer?

If file_name is readable by others, returns an integer representing the file permission bits of file_name. Returns nil otherwise. The meaning of the bits is platform dependent; on Unix systems, see stat(2).

file_name can be an IO object.

File.world_readable?("/etc/passwd")	    #=> 420
m = File.world_readable?("/etc/passwd")
sprintf("%o", m)				    #=> "644"

Returns:


1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
# File 'file.c', line 1867

static VALUE
rb_file_world_readable_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
#ifdef S_IROTH
    struct stat st;

    if (rb_stat(fname, &st) < 0) return Qnil;
    if ((st.st_mode & (S_IROTH)) == S_IROTH) {
	return UINT2NUM(st.st_mode & (S_IRUGO|S_IWUGO|S_IXUGO));
    }
#endif
    return Qnil;
}

.world_writable?(file_name) ⇒ Integer?

If file_name is writable by others, returns an integer representing the file permission bits of file_name. Returns nil otherwise. The meaning of the bits is platform dependent; on Unix systems, see stat(2).

file_name can be an IO object.

File.world_writable?("/tmp")		    #=> 511
m = File.world_writable?("/tmp")
sprintf("%o", m)				    #=> "777"

Returns:


1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
# File 'file.c', line 1933

static VALUE
rb_file_world_writable_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
#ifdef S_IWOTH
    struct stat st;

    if (rb_stat(fname, &st) < 0) return Qnil;
    if ((st.st_mode & (S_IWOTH)) == S_IWOTH) {
	return UINT2NUM(st.st_mode & (S_IRUGO|S_IWUGO|S_IXUGO));
    }
#endif
    return Qnil;
}

.writable?(file_name) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if the named file is writable by the effective user and group id of this process. See eaccess(3).

Note that some OS-level security features may cause this to return true even though the file is not writable by the effective user/group.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
# File 'file.c', line 1892

static VALUE
rb_file_writable_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
    if (rb_eaccess(fname, W_OK) < 0) return Qfalse;
    return Qtrue;
}

.writable_real?(file_name) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if the named file is writable by the real user and group id of this process. See access(3).

Note that some OS-level security features may cause this to return true even though the file is not writable by the real user/group.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
# File 'file.c', line 1910

static VALUE
rb_file_writable_real_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
    if (rb_access(fname, W_OK) < 0) return Qfalse;
    return Qtrue;
}

.zero?(file_name) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if the named file exists and has a zero size.

file_name can be an IO object.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
# File 'file.c', line 2027

static VALUE
rb_file_zero_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
    struct stat st;

    if (rb_stat(fname, &st) < 0) return Qfalse;
    if (st.st_size == 0) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

Instance Method Details

#atimeTime

Returns the last access time (a Time object) for file, or epoch if file has not been accessed.

File.new("testfile").atime   #=> Wed Dec 31 18:00:00 CST 1969

Returns:


2344
2345
2346
2347
2348
2349
2350
2351
2352
2353
2354
2355
# File 'file.c', line 2344

static VALUE
rb_file_atime(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    struct stat st;

    GetOpenFile(obj, fptr);
    if (fstat(fptr->fd, &st) == -1) {
	rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
    }
    return stat_atime(&st);
}

#birthtimeTime

Returns the birth time for file.

File.new("testfile").birthtime   #=> Wed Apr 09 08:53:14 CDT 2003

If the platform doesn't have birthtime, raises NotImplementedError.

Returns:


2504
2505
2506
2507
2508
2509
2510
2511
2512
2513
2514
2515
# File 'file.c', line 2504

static VALUE
rb_file_birthtime(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    statx_data st;

    GetOpenFile(obj, fptr);
    if (fstatx_without_gvl(fptr->fd, &st, STATX_BTIME) == -1) {
	rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
    }
    return statx_birthtime(&st, fptr->pathv);
}

#chmod(mode_int) ⇒ 0

Changes permission bits on file to the bit pattern represented by mode_int. Actual effects are platform dependent; on Unix systems, see chmod(2) for details. Follows symbolic links. Also see File#lchmod.

f = File.new("out", "w");
f.chmod(0644)   #=> 0

Returns:

  • (0)

2589
2590
2591
2592
2593
2594
2595
2596
2597
2598
2599
2600
2601
2602
2603
2604
2605
2606
2607
2608
2609
2610
2611
2612
2613
2614
2615
2616
2617
2618
# File 'file.c', line 2589

static VALUE
rb_file_chmod(VALUE obj, VALUE vmode)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    mode_t mode;
#if !defined HAVE_FCHMOD || !HAVE_FCHMOD
    VALUE path;
#endif

    mode = NUM2MODET(vmode);

    GetOpenFile(obj, fptr);
#ifdef HAVE_FCHMOD
    if (fchmod(fptr->fd, mode) == -1) {
	if (HAVE_FCHMOD || errno != ENOSYS)
	    rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
    }
    else {
	if (!HAVE_FCHMOD) return INT2FIX(0);
    }
#endif
#if !defined HAVE_FCHMOD || !HAVE_FCHMOD
    if (NIL_P(fptr->pathv)) return Qnil;
    path = rb_str_encode_ospath(fptr->pathv);
    if (chmod(RSTRING_PTR(path), mode) == -1)
	rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
#endif

    return INT2FIX(0);
}

#chown(owner_int, group_int) ⇒ 0

Changes the owner and group of file to the given numeric owner and group id's. Only a process with superuser privileges may change the owner of a file. The current owner of a file may change the file's group to any group to which the owner belongs. A nil or -1 owner or group id is ignored. Follows symbolic links. See also File#lchown.

File.new("testfile").chown(502, 1000)

Returns:

  • (0)

2723
2724
2725
2726
2727
2728
2729
2730
2731
2732
2733
2734
2735
2736
2737
2738
2739
2740
2741
2742
2743
2744
2745
2746
2747
# File 'file.c', line 2723

static VALUE
rb_file_chown(VALUE obj, VALUE owner, VALUE group)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    rb_uid_t o;
    rb_gid_t g;
#ifndef HAVE_FCHOWN
    VALUE path;
#endif

    o = to_uid(owner);
    g = to_gid(group);
    GetOpenFile(obj, fptr);
#ifndef HAVE_FCHOWN
    if (NIL_P(fptr->pathv)) return Qnil;
    path = rb_str_encode_ospath(fptr->pathv);
    if (chown(RSTRING_PTR(path), o, g) == -1)
	rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
#else
    if (fchown(fptr->fd, o, g) == -1)
	rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
#endif

    return INT2FIX(0);
}

#ctimeTime

Returns the change time for file (that is, the time directory information about the file was changed, not the file itself).

Note that on Windows (NTFS), returns creation time (birth time).

File.new("testfile").ctime   #=> Wed Apr 09 08:53:14 CDT 2003

Returns:


2447
2448
2449
2450
2451
2452
2453
2454
2455
2456
2457
2458
# File 'file.c', line 2447

static VALUE
rb_file_ctime(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    struct stat st;

    GetOpenFile(obj, fptr);
    if (fstat(fptr->fd, &st) == -1) {
	rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
    }
    return stat_ctime(&st);
}

#flock(locking_constant) ⇒ 0, false

Locks or unlocks a file according to locking_constant (a logical or of the values in the table below). Returns false if File::LOCK_NB is specified and the operation would otherwise have blocked. Not available on all platforms.

Locking constants (in class File):

LOCK_EX   | Exclusive lock. Only one process may hold an
          | exclusive lock for a given file at a time.
----------+------------------------------------------------
LOCK_NB   | Don't block when locking. May be combined
          | with other lock options using logical or.
----------+------------------------------------------------
LOCK_SH   | Shared lock. Multiple processes may each hold a
          | shared lock for a given file at the same time.
----------+------------------------------------------------
LOCK_UN   | Unlock.

Example:

# update a counter using write lock
# don't use "w" because it truncates the file before lock.
File.open("counter", File::RDWR|File::CREAT, 0644) {|f|
  f.flock(File::LOCK_EX)
  value = f.read.to_i + 1
  f.rewind
  f.write("#{value}\n")
  f.flush
  f.truncate(f.pos)
}

# read the counter using read lock
File.open("counter", "r") {|f|
  f.flock(File::LOCK_SH)
  p f.read
}

Returns:

  • (0, false)

5179
5180
5181
5182
5183
5184
5185
5186
5187
5188
5189
5190
5191
5192
5193
5194
5195
5196
5197
5198
5199
5200
5201
5202
5203
5204
5205
5206
5207
5208
5209
5210
5211
5212
5213
5214
5215
5216
5217
5218
5219
5220
# File 'file.c', line 5179

static VALUE
rb_file_flock(VALUE obj, VALUE operation)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    int op[2], op1;
    struct timeval time;

    op[1] = op1 = NUM2INT(operation);
    GetOpenFile(obj, fptr);
    op[0] = fptr->fd;

    if (fptr->mode & FMODE_WRITABLE) {
	rb_io_flush_raw(obj, 0);
    }
    while ((int)rb_thread_io_blocking_region(rb_thread_flock, op, fptr->fd) < 0) {
	int e = errno;
	switch (e) {
	  case EAGAIN:
	  case EACCES:
#if defined(EWOULDBLOCK) && EWOULDBLOCK != EAGAIN
	  case EWOULDBLOCK:
#endif
	    if (op1 & LOCK_NB) return Qfalse;

	    time.tv_sec = 0;
	    time.tv_usec = 100 * 1000;	/* 0.1 sec */
	    rb_thread_wait_for(time);
	    rb_io_check_closed(fptr);
	    continue;

	  case EINTR:
#if defined(ERESTART)
	  case ERESTART:
#endif
	    break;

	  default:
	    rb_syserr_fail_path(e, fptr->pathv);
	}
    }
    return INT2FIX(0);
}

#lstatObject

Same as IO#stat, but does not follow the last symbolic link. Instead, reports on the link itself.

File.symlink("testfile", "link2test")   #=> 0
File.stat("testfile").size              #=> 66
f = File.new("link2test")
f.lstat.size                            #=> 8
f.stat.size                             #=> 66

1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
# File 'file.c', line 1412

static VALUE
rb_file_lstat(VALUE obj)
{
#ifdef HAVE_LSTAT
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    struct stat st;
    VALUE path;

    GetOpenFile(obj, fptr);
    if (NIL_P(fptr->pathv)) return Qnil;
    path = rb_str_encode_ospath(fptr->pathv);
    if (lstat_without_gvl(RSTRING_PTR(path), &st) == -1) {
	rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
    }
    return rb_stat_new(&st);
#else
    return rb_io_stat(obj);
#endif
}

#mtimeTime

Returns the modification time for file.

File.new("testfile").mtime   #=> Wed Apr 09 08:53:14 CDT 2003

Returns:


2392
2393
2394
2395
2396
2397
2398
2399
2400
2401
2402
2403
# File 'file.c', line 2392

static VALUE
rb_file_mtime(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    struct stat st;

    GetOpenFile(obj, fptr);
    if (fstat(fptr->fd, &st) == -1) {
	rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
    }
    return stat_mtime(&st);
}

#pathObject #to_pathObject

Returns the pathname used to create file as a string. Does not normalize the name.

The pathname may not point to the file corresponding to file. For instance, the pathname becomes void when the file has been moved or deleted.

This method raises IOError for a file created using File::Constants::TMPFILE because they don't have a pathname.

File.new("testfile").path               #=> "testfile"
File.new("/tmp/../tmp/xxx", "w").path   #=> "/tmp/../tmp/xxx"

465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
# File 'file.c', line 465

static VALUE
rb_file_path(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    fptr = RFILE(rb_io_taint_check(obj))->fptr;
    rb_io_check_initialized(fptr);

    if (NIL_P(fptr->pathv)) {
        rb_raise(rb_eIOError, "File is unnamed (TMPFILE?)");
    }

    return rb_str_dup(fptr->pathv);
}

#sizeInteger

Returns the size of file in bytes.

File.new("testfile").size   #=> 66

Returns:


2530
2531
2532
2533
2534
2535
2536
2537
2538
2539
2540
2541
2542
2543
2544
# File 'file.c', line 2530

static VALUE
rb_file_size(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    struct stat st;

    GetOpenFile(obj, fptr);
    if (fptr->mode & FMODE_WRITABLE) {
	rb_io_flush_raw(obj, 0);
    }
    if (fstat(fptr->fd, &st) == -1) {
	rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
    }
    return OFFT2NUM(st.st_size);
}

#pathObject #to_pathObject

Returns the pathname used to create file as a string. Does not normalize the name.

The pathname may not point to the file corresponding to file. For instance, the pathname becomes void when the file has been moved or deleted.

This method raises IOError for a file created using File::Constants::TMPFILE because they don't have a pathname.

File.new("testfile").path               #=> "testfile"
File.new("/tmp/../tmp/xxx", "w").path   #=> "/tmp/../tmp/xxx"

465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
# File 'file.c', line 465

static VALUE
rb_file_path(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    fptr = RFILE(rb_io_taint_check(obj))->fptr;
    rb_io_check_initialized(fptr);

    if (NIL_P(fptr->pathv)) {
        rb_raise(rb_eIOError, "File is unnamed (TMPFILE?)");
    }

    return rb_str_dup(fptr->pathv);
}

#truncate(integer) ⇒ 0

Truncates file to at most integer bytes. The file must be opened for writing. Not available on all platforms.

f = File.new("out", "w")
f.syswrite("1234567890")   #=> 10
f.truncate(5)              #=> 0
f.close()                  #=> nil
File.size("out")           #=> 5

Returns:

  • (0)

5078
5079
5080
5081
5082
5083
5084
5085
5086
5087
5088
5089
5090
5091
5092
5093
5094
5095
5096
# File 'file.c', line 5078

static VALUE
rb_file_truncate(VALUE obj, VALUE len)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    struct ftruncate_arg fa;

    fa.pos = NUM2POS(len);
    GetOpenFile(obj, fptr);
    if (!(fptr->mode & FMODE_WRITABLE)) {
	rb_raise(rb_eIOError, "not opened for writing");
    }
    rb_io_flush_raw(obj, 0);
    fa.fd = fptr->fd;
    if ((int)rb_thread_io_blocking_region(nogvl_ftruncate, &fa, fa.fd) < 0) {
	rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
    }
    return INT2FIX(0);
#undef NUM2POS
}