Class: Struct

Inherits:
Object show all
Includes:
Enumerable
Defined in:
struct.c,
struct.c

Overview

A Struct is a convenient way to bundle a number of attributes together, using accessor methods, without having to write an explicit class.

The Struct class generates new subclasses that hold a set of members and their values. For each member a reader and writer method is created similar to Module#attr_accessor.

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address) do
  def greeting
    "Hello #{name}!"
  end
end

dave = Customer.new("Dave", "123 Main")
dave.name     #=> "Dave"
dave.greeting #=> "Hello Dave!"

See Struct::new for further examples of creating struct subclasses and instances.

In the method descriptions that follow, a “member” parameter refers to a struct member which is either a quoted string ("name") or a Symbol (:name).

Class Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Methods included from Enumerable

#all?, #any?, #chain, #chunk, #chunk_while, #collect, #collect_concat, #count, #cycle, #detect, #drop, #drop_while, #each_cons, #each_entry, #each_slice, #each_with_index, #each_with_object, #entries, #filter_map, #find, #find_all, #find_index, #first, #flat_map, #grep, #grep_v, #group_by, #include?, #inject, #lazy, #map, #max, #max_by, #member?, #min, #min_by, #minmax, #minmax_by, #none?, #one?, #partition, #reduce, #reject, #reverse_each, #slice_after, #slice_before, #slice_when, #sort, #sort_by, #sum, #take, #take_while, #tally, #uniq, #zip

Constructor Details

#initialize(*args) ⇒ Object


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# File 'struct.c', line 656

static VALUE
rb_struct_initialize_m(int argc, const VALUE *argv, VALUE self)
{
    VALUE klass = rb_obj_class(self);
    long i, n;

    rb_struct_modify(self);
    n = num_members(klass);
    if (argc > 0 && RTEST(rb_struct_s_keyword_init(klass))) {
	struct struct_hash_set_arg arg;
	if (argc > 1 || !RB_TYPE_P(argv[0], T_HASH)) {
	    rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "wrong number of arguments (given %d, expected 0)", argc);
	}
	rb_mem_clear((VALUE *)RSTRUCT_CONST_PTR(self), n);
	arg.self = self;
	arg.unknown_keywords = Qnil;
	rb_hash_foreach(argv[0], struct_hash_set_i, (VALUE)&arg);
	if (arg.unknown_keywords != Qnil) {
	    rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "unknown keywords: %s",
		     RSTRING_PTR(rb_ary_join(arg.unknown_keywords, rb_str_new2(", "))));
	}
    }
    else {
	if (n < argc) {
	    rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "struct size differs");
	}
	for (i=0; i<argc; i++) {
	    RSTRUCT_SET(self, i, argv[i]);
	}
	if (n > argc) {
	    rb_mem_clear((VALUE *)RSTRUCT_CONST_PTR(self)+argc, n-argc);
	}
    }
    return Qnil;
}

Class Method Details

.new([class_name][, member_name]) ⇒ StructClass .new([class_name][, member_name], keyword_init: true) ⇒ StructClass .new([class_name][, member_name]) {|StructClass| ... } ⇒ StructClass .new(value, ...) ⇒ Object .[](value, ...) ⇒ Object

The first two forms are used to create a new Struct subclass class_name that can contain a value for each member_name. This subclass can be used to create instances of the structure like any other Class.

If the class_name is omitted an anonymous structure class will be created. Otherwise, the name of this struct will appear as a constant in class Struct, so it must be unique for all Structs in the system and must start with a capital letter. Assigning a structure class to a constant also gives the class the name of the constant.

# Create a structure with a name under Struct
Struct.new("Customer", :name, :address)
#=> Struct::Customer
Struct::Customer.new("Dave", "123 Main")
#=> #<struct Struct::Customer name="Dave", address="123 Main">

# Create a structure named by its constant
Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address)
#=> Customer
Customer.new("Dave", "123 Main")
#=> #<struct Customer name="Dave", address="123 Main">

If the optional keyword_init keyword argument is set to true, .new takes keyword arguments instead of normal arguments.

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address, keyword_init: true)
Customer.new(name: "Dave", address: "123 Main")
#=> #<struct Customer name="Dave", address="123 Main">

If a block is given it will be evaluated in the context of StructClass, passing the created class as a parameter:

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address) do
  def greeting
    "Hello #{name}!"
  end
end
Customer.new("Dave", "123 Main").greeting  #=> "Hello Dave!"

This is the recommended way to customize a struct. Subclassing an anonymous struct creates an extra anonymous class that will never be used.

The last two forms create a new instance of a struct subclass. The number of value parameters must be less than or equal to the number of attributes defined for the structure. Unset parameters default to nil. Passing more parameters than number of attributes will raise an ArgumentError.

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address)
Customer.new("Dave", "123 Main")
#=> #<struct Customer name="Dave", address="123 Main">
Customer["Dave"]
#=> #<struct Customer name="Dave", address=nil>

Overloads:

  • .new([class_name][, member_name]) ⇒ StructClass

    Returns:

    • (StructClass)
  • .new([class_name][, member_name], keyword_init: true) ⇒ StructClass

    Returns:

    • (StructClass)
  • .new([class_name][, member_name]) {|StructClass| ... } ⇒ StructClass

    Yields:

    • (StructClass)

    Returns:

    • (StructClass)
  • .new(value, ...) ⇒ Object

    Returns:

  • .[](value, ...) ⇒ Object

    Returns:


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# File 'struct.c', line 554

static VALUE
rb_struct_s_def(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    VALUE name, rest, keyword_init = Qfalse;
    long i;
    VALUE st;
    st_table *tbl;

    rb_check_arity(argc, 1, UNLIMITED_ARGUMENTS);
    name = argv[0];
    if (SYMBOL_P(name)) {
	name = Qnil;
    }
    else {
	--argc;
	++argv;
    }

    if (RB_TYPE_P(argv[argc-1], T_HASH)) {
	static ID keyword_ids[1];

	if (!keyword_ids[0]) {
	    keyword_ids[0] = rb_intern("keyword_init");
	}
        rb_get_kwargs(argv[argc-1], keyword_ids, 0, 1, &keyword_init);
        if (keyword_init == Qundef) {
            keyword_init = Qfalse;
        }
	--argc;
    }

    rest = rb_ident_hash_new();
    RBASIC_CLEAR_CLASS(rest);
    OBJ_WB_UNPROTECT(rest);
    tbl = RHASH_TBL_RAW(rest);
    for (i=0; i<argc; i++) {
	VALUE mem = rb_to_symbol(argv[i]);
        if (rb_is_attrset_sym(mem)) {
            rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "invalid struct member: %"PRIsVALUE, mem);
        }
	if (st_insert(tbl, mem, Qtrue)) {
	    rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "duplicate member: %"PRIsVALUE, mem);
	}
    }
    rest = rb_hash_keys(rest);
    st_clear(tbl);
    RBASIC_CLEAR_CLASS(rest);
    OBJ_FREEZE_RAW(rest);
    if (NIL_P(name)) {
	st = anonymous_struct(klass);
    }
    else {
	st = new_struct(name, klass);
    }
    setup_struct(st, rest);
    rb_ivar_set(st, id_keyword_init, keyword_init);
    if (rb_block_given_p()) {
        rb_mod_module_eval(0, 0, st);
    }

    return st;
}

Instance Method Details

#==(other) ⇒ Boolean

Equality—Returns true if other has the same struct subclass and has equal member values (according to Object#==).

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address, :zip)
joe   = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)
joejr = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)
jane  = Customer.new("Jane Doe", "456 Elm, Anytown NC", 12345)
joe == joejr   #=> true
joe == jane    #=> false

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'struct.c', line 1239

static VALUE
rb_struct_equal(VALUE s, VALUE s2)
{
    if (s == s2) return Qtrue;
    if (!RB_TYPE_P(s2, T_STRUCT)) return Qfalse;
    if (rb_obj_class(s) != rb_obj_class(s2)) return Qfalse;
    if (RSTRUCT_LEN(s) != RSTRUCT_LEN(s2)) {
	rb_bug("inconsistent struct"); /* should never happen */
    }

    return rb_exec_recursive_paired(recursive_equal, s, s2, s2);
}

#[](member) ⇒ Object #[](index) ⇒ Object

Attribute Reference—Returns the value of the given struct member or the member at the given index. Raises NameError if the member does not exist and IndexError if the index is out of range.

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address, :zip)
joe = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)

joe["name"]   #=> "Joe Smith"
joe[:name]    #=> "Joe Smith"
joe[0]        #=> "Joe Smith"

Overloads:


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# File 'struct.c', line 1095

VALUE
rb_struct_aref(VALUE s, VALUE idx)
{
    int i = rb_struct_pos(s, &idx);
    if (i < 0) invalid_struct_pos(s, idx);
    return RSTRUCT_GET(s, i);
}

#[]=(member) ⇒ Object #[]=(index) ⇒ Object

Attribute Assignment—Sets the value of the given struct member or the member at the given index. Raises NameError if the member does not exist and IndexError if the index is out of range.

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address, :zip)
joe = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)

joe["name"] = "Luke"
joe[:zip]   = "90210"

joe.name   #=> "Luke"
joe.zip    #=> "90210"

Overloads:


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# File 'struct.c', line 1122

VALUE
rb_struct_aset(VALUE s, VALUE idx, VALUE val)
{
    int i = rb_struct_pos(s, &idx);
    if (i < 0) invalid_struct_pos(s, idx);
    rb_struct_modify(s);
    RSTRUCT_SET(s, i, val);
    return val;
}

#to_aArray #valuesArray

Returns the values for this struct as an Array.

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address, :zip)
joe = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)
joe.to_a[1]   #=> "123 Maple, Anytown NC"

Overloads:


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# File 'struct.c', line 937

static VALUE
rb_struct_to_a(VALUE s)
{
    return rb_ary_new4(RSTRUCT_LEN(s), RSTRUCT_CONST_PTR(s));
}

#deconstruct_keys(keys) ⇒ Object


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# File 'struct.c', line 978

static VALUE
rb_struct_deconstruct_keys(VALUE s, VALUE keys)
{
    VALUE h;
    long i;

    if (NIL_P(keys)) {
        return rb_struct_to_h(s);
    }
    if (UNLIKELY(!RB_TYPE_P(keys, T_ARRAY))) {
	rb_raise(rb_eTypeError,
                 "wrong argument type %"PRIsVALUE" (expected Array or nil)",
                 rb_obj_class(keys));

    }
    if (RSTRUCT_LEN(s) < RARRAY_LEN(keys)) {
        return rb_hash_new_with_size(0);
    }
    h = rb_hash_new_with_size(RARRAY_LEN(keys));
    for (i=0; i<RARRAY_LEN(keys); i++) {
        VALUE key = RARRAY_AREF(keys, i);
        int i = rb_struct_pos(s, &key);
        if (i < 0) {
            return h;
        }
        rb_hash_aset(h, key, RSTRUCT_GET(s, i));
    }
    return h;
}

#dig(key, *identifiers) ⇒ Object

Finds and returns the object in nested objects that is specified by key and identifiers. The nested objects may be instances of various classes. See Dig Methods.

Examples:

Foo = Struct.new(:a)
f = Foo.new(Foo.new({b: [1, 2, 3]}))
f.dig(:a) # => #<struct Foo a={:b=>[1, 2, 3]}>
f.dig(:a, :a) # => {:b=>[1, 2, 3]}
f.dig(:a, :a, :b) # => [1, 2, 3]
f.dig(:a, :a, :b, 0) # => 1
f.dig(:b, 0) # => nil

Returns:


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# File 'struct.c', line 1350

static VALUE
rb_struct_dig(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE self)
{
    rb_check_arity(argc, 1, UNLIMITED_ARGUMENTS);
    self = rb_struct_lookup(self, *argv);
    if (!--argc) return self;
    ++argv;
    return rb_obj_dig(argc, argv, self, Qnil);
}

#each {|obj| ... } ⇒ Object #eachObject

Yields the value of each struct member in order. If no block is given an enumerator is returned.

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address, :zip)
joe = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)
joe.each {|x| puts(x) }

Produces:

Joe Smith
123 Maple, Anytown NC
12345

Overloads:

  • #each {|obj| ... } ⇒ Object

    Yields:

    • (obj)

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# File 'struct.c', line 811

static VALUE
rb_struct_each(VALUE s)
{
    long i;

    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(s, 0, 0, struct_enum_size);
    for (i=0; i<RSTRUCT_LEN(s); i++) {
	rb_yield(RSTRUCT_GET(s, i));
    }
    return s;
}

#each_pair {|sym, obj| ... } ⇒ Object #each_pairObject

Yields the name and value of each struct member in order. If no block is given an enumerator is returned.

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address, :zip)
joe = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)
joe.each_pair {|name, value| puts("#{name} => #{value}") }

Produces:

name => Joe Smith
address => 123 Maple, Anytown NC
zip => 12345

Overloads:

  • #each_pair {|sym, obj| ... } ⇒ Object

    Yields:

    • (sym, obj)

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# File 'struct.c', line 842

static VALUE
rb_struct_each_pair(VALUE s)
{
    VALUE members;
    long i;

    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(s, 0, 0, struct_enum_size);
    members = rb_struct_members(s);
    if (rb_block_pair_yield_optimizable()) {
	for (i=0; i<RSTRUCT_LEN(s); i++) {
	    VALUE key = rb_ary_entry(members, i);
	    VALUE value = RSTRUCT_GET(s, i);
	    rb_yield_values(2, key, value);
	}
    }
    else {
	for (i=0; i<RSTRUCT_LEN(s); i++) {
	    VALUE key = rb_ary_entry(members, i);
	    VALUE value = RSTRUCT_GET(s, i);
	    rb_yield(rb_assoc_new(key, value));
	}
    }
    return s;
}

#eql?(other) ⇒ Boolean

Hash equality—other and struct refer to the same hash key if they have the same struct subclass and have equal member values (according to Object#eql?).

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'struct.c', line 1300

static VALUE
rb_struct_eql(VALUE s, VALUE s2)
{
    if (s == s2) return Qtrue;
    if (!RB_TYPE_P(s2, T_STRUCT)) return Qfalse;
    if (rb_obj_class(s) != rb_obj_class(s2)) return Qfalse;
    if (RSTRUCT_LEN(s) != RSTRUCT_LEN(s2)) {
	rb_bug("inconsistent struct"); /* should never happen */
    }

    return rb_exec_recursive_paired(recursive_eql, s, s2, s2);
}

#select {|obj| ... } ⇒ Array #selectObject #filter {|obj| ... } ⇒ Array #filterObject

Yields each member value from the struct to the block and returns an Array containing the member values from the struct for which the given block returns a true value (equivalent to Enumerable#select).

Lots = Struct.new(:a, :b, :c, :d, :e, :f)
l = Lots.new(11, 22, 33, 44, 55, 66)
l.select {|v| v.even? }   #=> [22, 44, 66]

Struct#filter is an alias for Struct#select.

Overloads:

  • #select {|obj| ... } ⇒ Array

    Yields:

    • (obj)

    Returns:

  • #filter {|obj| ... } ⇒ Array

    Yields:

    • (obj)

    Returns:


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# File 'struct.c', line 1193

static VALUE
rb_struct_select(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE s)
{
    VALUE result;
    long i;

    rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 0);
    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(s, 0, 0, struct_enum_size);
    result = rb_ary_new();
    for (i = 0; i < RSTRUCT_LEN(s); i++) {
	if (RTEST(rb_yield(RSTRUCT_GET(s, i)))) {
	    rb_ary_push(result, RSTRUCT_GET(s, i));
	}
    }

    return result;
}

#hashInteger

Returns a hash value based on this struct's contents.

See also Object#hash.

Returns:


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# File 'struct.c', line 1261

static VALUE
rb_struct_hash(VALUE s)
{
    long i, len;
    st_index_t h;
    VALUE n;

    h = rb_hash_start(rb_hash(rb_obj_class(s)));
    len = RSTRUCT_LEN(s);
    for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
        n = rb_hash(RSTRUCT_GET(s, i));
	h = rb_hash_uint(h, NUM2LONG(n));
    }
    h = rb_hash_end(h);
    return ST2FIX(h);
}

#initialize_copy(s) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'struct.c', line 1009

VALUE
rb_struct_init_copy(VALUE copy, VALUE s)
{
    long i, len;

    if (!OBJ_INIT_COPY(copy, s)) return copy;
    if (RSTRUCT_LEN(copy) != RSTRUCT_LEN(s)) {
	rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "struct size mismatch");
    }

    for (i=0, len=RSTRUCT_LEN(copy); i<len; i++) {
	RSTRUCT_SET(copy, i, RSTRUCT_GET(s, i));
    }

    return copy;
}

#to_sString #inspectString Also known as: to_s

Returns a description of this struct as a string.

Overloads:


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# File 'struct.c', line 919

static VALUE
rb_struct_inspect(VALUE s)
{
    return rb_exec_recursive(inspect_struct, s, 0);
}

#lengthInteger #sizeInteger

Returns the number of struct members.

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address, :zip)
joe = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)
joe.length   #=> 3

Overloads:


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# File 'struct.c', line 1325

VALUE
rb_struct_size(VALUE s)
{
    return LONG2FIX(RSTRUCT_LEN(s));
}

#membersArray

Returns the struct members as an array of symbols:

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address, :zip)
joe = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)
joe.members   #=> [:name, :address, :zip]

Returns:


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# File 'struct.c', line 212

static VALUE
rb_struct_members_m(VALUE obj)
{
    return rb_struct_s_members_m(rb_obj_class(obj));
}

#select {|obj| ... } ⇒ Array #selectObject #filter {|obj| ... } ⇒ Array #filterObject

Yields each member value from the struct to the block and returns an Array containing the member values from the struct for which the given block returns a true value (equivalent to Enumerable#select).

Lots = Struct.new(:a, :b, :c, :d, :e, :f)
l = Lots.new(11, 22, 33, 44, 55, 66)
l.select {|v| v.even? }   #=> [22, 44, 66]

Struct#filter is an alias for Struct#select.

Overloads:

  • #select {|obj| ... } ⇒ Array

    Yields:

    • (obj)

    Returns:

  • #filter {|obj| ... } ⇒ Array

    Yields:

    • (obj)

    Returns:


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# File 'struct.c', line 1193

static VALUE
rb_struct_select(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE s)
{
    VALUE result;
    long i;

    rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 0);
    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(s, 0, 0, struct_enum_size);
    result = rb_ary_new();
    for (i = 0; i < RSTRUCT_LEN(s); i++) {
	if (RTEST(rb_yield(RSTRUCT_GET(s, i)))) {
	    rb_ary_push(result, RSTRUCT_GET(s, i));
	}
    }

    return result;
}

#lengthInteger #sizeInteger

Returns the number of struct members.

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address, :zip)
joe = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)
joe.length   #=> 3

Overloads:


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# File 'struct.c', line 1325

VALUE
rb_struct_size(VALUE s)
{
    return LONG2FIX(RSTRUCT_LEN(s));
}

#to_aArray #valuesArray

Returns the values for this struct as an Array.

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address, :zip)
joe = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)
joe.to_a[1]   #=> "123 Maple, Anytown NC"

Overloads:


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# File 'struct.c', line 937

static VALUE
rb_struct_to_a(VALUE s)
{
    return rb_ary_new4(RSTRUCT_LEN(s), RSTRUCT_CONST_PTR(s));
}

#to_hHash #to_h {|name, value| ... } ⇒ Hash

Returns a Hash containing the names and values for the struct's members.

If a block is given, the results of the block on each pair of the receiver will be used as pairs.

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address, :zip)
joe = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)
joe.to_h[:address]   #=> "123 Maple, Anytown NC"
joe.to_h{|name, value| [name.upcase, value.to_s.upcase]}[:ADDRESS]
                     #=> "123 MAPLE, ANYTOWN NC"

Overloads:

  • #to_hHash

    Returns:

  • #to_h {|name, value| ... } ⇒ Hash

    Yields:

    • (name, value)

    Returns:


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# File 'struct.c', line 960

static VALUE
rb_struct_to_h(VALUE s)
{
    VALUE h = rb_hash_new_with_size(RSTRUCT_LEN(s));
    VALUE members = rb_struct_members(s);
    long i;
    int block_given = rb_block_given_p();

    for (i=0; i<RSTRUCT_LEN(s); i++) {
        VALUE k = rb_ary_entry(members, i), v = RSTRUCT_GET(s, i);
        if (block_given)
            rb_hash_set_pair(h, rb_yield_values(2, k, v));
        else
            rb_hash_aset(h, k, v);
    }
    return h;
}

#to_aArray #valuesArray

Returns the values for this struct as an Array.

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address, :zip)
joe = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)
joe.to_a[1]   #=> "123 Maple, Anytown NC"

Overloads:


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# File 'struct.c', line 937

static VALUE
rb_struct_to_a(VALUE s)
{
    return rb_ary_new4(RSTRUCT_LEN(s), RSTRUCT_CONST_PTR(s));
}

#values_at(selector, ...) ⇒ Array

Returns the struct member values for each selector as an Array. A selector may be either an Integer offset or a Range of offsets (as in Array#values_at).

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address, :zip)
joe = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)
joe.values_at(0, 2)   #=> ["Joe Smith", 12345]

Returns:


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# File 'struct.c', line 1169

static VALUE
rb_struct_values_at(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE s)
{
    return rb_get_values_at(s, RSTRUCT_LEN(s), argc, argv, struct_entry);
}