Class: UnboundMethod

Inherits:
Object show all
Defined in:
proc.c,
proc.c

Overview

********************************************************************

Ruby supports two forms of objectified methods. Class Method is
used to represent methods that are associated with a particular
object: these method objects are bound to that object. Bound
method objects for an object can be created using Object#method.

Ruby also supports unbound methods; methods objects that are not
associated with a particular object. These can be created either
by calling Module#instance_method or by calling #unbind on a bound
method object. The result of both of these is an UnboundMethod
object.

Unbound methods can only be called after they are bound to an
object. That object must be a kind_of? the method's original
class.

   class Square
     def area
       @side * @side
     end
     def initialize(side)
       @side = side
     end
   end

   area_un = Square.instance_method(:area)

   s = Square.new(12)
   area = area_un.bind(s)
   area.call   #=> 144

Unbound methods are a reference to the method at the time it was
objectified: subsequent changes to the underlying class will not
affect the unbound method.

   class Test
     def test
       :original
     end
   end
   um = Test.instance_method(:test)
   class Test
     def test
       :modified
     end
   end
   t = Test.new
   t.test            #=> :modified
   um.bind(t).call   #=> :original

Instance Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Details

#eql?(other_meth) ⇒ Boolean #==(other_meth) ⇒ Boolean

Two method objects are equal if they are bound to the same object and refer to the same method definition and the classes defining the methods are the same class or module.

Overloads:

  • #eql?(other_meth) ⇒ Boolean

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)
  • #==(other_meth) ⇒ Boolean

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)

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# File 'proc.c', line 1757

static VALUE
method_eq(VALUE method, VALUE other)
{
    struct METHOD *m1, *m2;
    VALUE klass1, klass2;

    if (!rb_obj_is_method(other))
	return Qfalse;
    if (CLASS_OF(method) != CLASS_OF(other))
	return Qfalse;

    Check_TypedStruct(method, &method_data_type);
    m1 = (struct METHOD *)DATA_PTR(method);
    m2 = (struct METHOD *)DATA_PTR(other);

    klass1 = method_entry_defined_class(m1->me);
    klass2 = method_entry_defined_class(m2->me);

    if (!rb_method_entry_eq(m1->me, m2->me) ||
	klass1 != klass2 ||
	m1->klass != m2->klass ||
	m1->recv != m2->recv) {
	return Qfalse;
    }

    return Qtrue;
}

#arityInteger

Returns an indication of the number of arguments accepted by a method. Returns a nonnegative integer for methods that take a fixed number of arguments. For Ruby methods that take a variable number of arguments, returns -n-1, where n is the number of required arguments. Keyword arguments will be considered as a single additional argument, that argument being mandatory if any keyword argument is mandatory. For methods written in C, returns -1 if the call takes a variable number of arguments.

class C
  def one;    end
  def two(a); end
  def three(*a);  end
  def four(a, b); end
  def five(a, b, *c);    end
  def six(a, b, *c, &d); end
  def seven(a, b, x:0); end
  def eight(x:, y:); end
  def nine(x:, y:, **z); end
  def ten(*a, x:, y:); end
end
c = C.new
c.method(:one).arity     #=> 0
c.method(:two).arity     #=> 1
c.method(:three).arity   #=> -1
c.method(:four).arity    #=> 2
c.method(:five).arity    #=> -3
c.method(:six).arity     #=> -3
c.method(:seven).arity   #=> -3
c.method(:eight).arity   #=> 1
c.method(:nine).arity    #=> 1
c.method(:ten).arity     #=> -2

"cat".method(:size).arity      #=> 0
"cat".method(:replace).arity   #=> 1
"cat".method(:squeeze).arity   #=> -1
"cat".method(:count).arity     #=> -1

Returns:


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# File 'proc.c', line 2733

static VALUE
method_arity_m(VALUE method)
{
    int n = method_arity(method);
    return INT2FIX(n);
}

#bind(obj) ⇒ Object

Bind umeth to obj. If Klass was the class from which umeth was obtained, obj.kind_of?(Klass) must be true.

class A
  def test
    puts "In test, class = #{self.class}"
  end
end
class B < A
end
class C < B
end

um = B.instance_method(:test)
bm = um.bind(C.new)
bm.call
bm = um.bind(B.new)
bm.call
bm = um.bind(A.new)
bm.call

produces:

In test, class = C
In test, class = B
prog.rb:16:in `bind': bind argument must be an instance of B (TypeError)
	from prog.rb:16

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# File 'proc.c', line 2576

static VALUE
umethod_bind(VALUE method, VALUE recv)
{
    VALUE methclass, klass, iclass;
    const rb_method_entry_t *me;
    convert_umethod_to_method_components(method, recv, &methclass, &klass, &iclass, &me);

    struct METHOD *bound;
    method = TypedData_Make_Struct(rb_cMethod, struct METHOD, &method_data_type, bound);
    RB_OBJ_WRITE(method, &bound->recv, recv);
    RB_OBJ_WRITE(method, &bound->klass, klass);
    RB_OBJ_WRITE(method, &bound->iclass, iclass);
    RB_OBJ_WRITE(method, &bound->me, me);

    return method;
}

#bind_call(recv, args, ...) ⇒ Object

Bind umeth to recv and then invokes the method with the specified arguments. This is semantically equivalent to umeth.bind(recv).call(args, ...).

Returns:


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# File 'proc.c', line 2601

static VALUE
umethod_bind_call(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE method)
{
    rb_check_arity(argc, 1, UNLIMITED_ARGUMENTS);
    VALUE recv = argv[0];
    argc--;
    argv++;

    VALUE methclass, klass, iclass;
    const rb_method_entry_t *me;
    convert_umethod_to_method_components(method, recv, &methclass, &klass, &iclass, &me);
    struct METHOD bound = { recv, klass, 0, me };

    VALUE passed_procval = rb_block_given_p() ? rb_block_proc() : Qnil;

    rb_execution_context_t *ec = GET_EC();
    return call_method_data(ec, &bound, argc, argv, passed_procval, RB_PASS_CALLED_KEYWORDS);
}

#cloneObject

Returns a clone of this method.

class A
  def foo
    return "bar"
  end
end

m = A.new.method(:foo)
m.call # => "bar"
n = m.clone.call # => "bar"

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# File 'proc.c', line 2324

static VALUE
method_clone(VALUE self)
{
    VALUE clone;
    struct METHOD *orig, *data;

    TypedData_Get_Struct(self, struct METHOD, &method_data_type, orig);
    clone = TypedData_Make_Struct(CLASS_OF(self), struct METHOD, &method_data_type, data);
    CLONESETUP(clone, self);
    RB_OBJ_WRITE(clone, &data->recv, orig->recv);
    RB_OBJ_WRITE(clone, &data->klass, orig->klass);
    RB_OBJ_WRITE(clone, &data->iclass, orig->iclass);
    RB_OBJ_WRITE(clone, &data->me, rb_method_entry_clone(orig->me));
    return clone;
}

#eql?(other_meth) ⇒ Boolean #==(other_meth) ⇒ Boolean

Two method objects are equal if they are bound to the same object and refer to the same method definition and the classes defining the methods are the same class or module.

Overloads:

  • #eql?(other_meth) ⇒ Boolean

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)
  • #==(other_meth) ⇒ Boolean

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)

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# File 'proc.c', line 1757

static VALUE
method_eq(VALUE method, VALUE other)
{
    struct METHOD *m1, *m2;
    VALUE klass1, klass2;

    if (!rb_obj_is_method(other))
	return Qfalse;
    if (CLASS_OF(method) != CLASS_OF(other))
	return Qfalse;

    Check_TypedStruct(method, &method_data_type);
    m1 = (struct METHOD *)DATA_PTR(method);
    m2 = (struct METHOD *)DATA_PTR(other);

    klass1 = method_entry_defined_class(m1->me);
    klass2 = method_entry_defined_class(m2->me);

    if (!rb_method_entry_eq(m1->me, m2->me) ||
	klass1 != klass2 ||
	m1->klass != m2->klass ||
	m1->recv != m2->recv) {
	return Qfalse;
    }

    return Qtrue;
}

#hashInteger

Returns a hash value corresponding to the method object.

See also Object#hash.

Returns:


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# File 'proc.c', line 1794

static VALUE
method_hash(VALUE method)
{
    struct METHOD *m;
    st_index_t hash;

    TypedData_Get_Struct(method, struct METHOD, &method_data_type, m);
    hash = rb_hash_start((st_index_t)m->recv);
    hash = rb_hash_method_entry(hash, m->me);
    hash = rb_hash_end(hash);

    return ST2FIX(hash);
}

#to_sString #inspectString

Returns a human-readable description of the underlying method.

"cat".method(:count).inspect   #=> "#<Method: String#count(*)>"
(1..3).method(:map).inspect    #=> "#<Method: Range(Enumerable)#map()>"

In the latter case, the method description includes the “owner” of the original method (Enumerable module, which is included into Range).

inspect also provides, when possible, method argument names (call sequence) and source location.

require 'net/http'
Net::HTTP.method(:get).inspect
#=> "#<Method: Net::HTTP.get(uri_or_host, path=..., port=...) <skip>/lib/ruby/2.7.0/net/http.rb:457>"

... in argument definition means argument is optional (has some default value).

For methods defined in C (language core and extensions), location and argument names can't be extracted, and only generic information is provided in form of * (any number of arguments) or _ (some positional argument).

"cat".method(:count).inspect   #=> "#<Method: String#count(*)>"
"cat".method(:+).inspect       #=> "#<Method: String#+(_)>""

Overloads:


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# File 'proc.c', line 2951

static VALUE
method_inspect(VALUE method)
{
    struct METHOD *data;
    VALUE str;
    const char *sharp = "#";
    VALUE mklass;
    VALUE defined_class;

    TypedData_Get_Struct(method, struct METHOD, &method_data_type, data);
    str = rb_sprintf("#<% "PRIsVALUE": ", rb_obj_class(method));

    mklass = data->iclass;
    if (!mklass) mklass = data->klass;

    if (RB_TYPE_P(mklass, T_ICLASS)) {
        /* TODO: I'm not sure why mklass is T_ICLASS.
         * UnboundMethod#bind() can set it as T_ICLASS at convert_umethod_to_method_components()
         * but not sure it is needed.
         */
        mklass = RBASIC_CLASS(mklass);
    }

    if (data->me->def->type == VM_METHOD_TYPE_ALIAS) {
	defined_class = data->me->def->body.alias.original_me->owner;
    }
    else {
	defined_class = method_entry_defined_class(data->me);
    }

    if (RB_TYPE_P(defined_class, T_ICLASS)) {
	defined_class = RBASIC_CLASS(defined_class);
    }

    if (FL_TEST(mklass, FL_SINGLETON)) {
	VALUE v = rb_ivar_get(mklass, attached);

	if (data->recv == Qundef) {
	    rb_str_buf_append(str, rb_inspect(mklass));
	}
	else if (data->recv == v) {
	    rb_str_buf_append(str, rb_inspect(v));
	    sharp = ".";
	}
	else {
	    rb_str_buf_append(str, rb_inspect(data->recv));
	    rb_str_buf_cat2(str, "(");
	    rb_str_buf_append(str, rb_inspect(v));
	    rb_str_buf_cat2(str, ")");
	    sharp = ".";
	}
    }
    else {
        mklass = data->klass;
        if (FL_TEST(mklass, FL_SINGLETON)) {
            VALUE v = rb_ivar_get(mklass, attached);
            if (!(RB_TYPE_P(v, T_CLASS) || RB_TYPE_P(v, T_MODULE))) {
                do {
                   mklass = RCLASS_SUPER(mklass);
                } while (RB_TYPE_P(mklass, T_ICLASS));
            }
        }
	rb_str_buf_append(str, rb_inspect(mklass));
	if (defined_class != mklass) {
	    rb_str_catf(str, "(% "PRIsVALUE")", defined_class);
	}
    }
    rb_str_buf_cat2(str, sharp);
    rb_str_append(str, rb_id2str(data->me->called_id));
    if (data->me->called_id != data->me->def->original_id) {
	rb_str_catf(str, "(%"PRIsVALUE")",
		    rb_id2str(data->me->def->original_id));
    }
    if (data->me->def->type == VM_METHOD_TYPE_NOTIMPLEMENTED) {
        rb_str_buf_cat2(str, " (not-implemented)");
    }

    // parameter information
    {
        VALUE params = rb_method_parameters(method);
        VALUE pair, name, kind;
        const VALUE req = ID2SYM(rb_intern("req"));
        const VALUE opt = ID2SYM(rb_intern("opt"));
        const VALUE keyreq = ID2SYM(rb_intern("keyreq"));
        const VALUE key = ID2SYM(rb_intern("key"));
        const VALUE rest = ID2SYM(rb_intern("rest"));
        const VALUE keyrest = ID2SYM(rb_intern("keyrest"));
        const VALUE block = ID2SYM(rb_intern("block"));
        const VALUE nokey = ID2SYM(rb_intern("nokey"));
        int forwarding = 0;

        rb_str_buf_cat2(str, "(");

        for (int i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(params); i++) {
            pair = RARRAY_AREF(params, i);
            kind = RARRAY_AREF(pair, 0);
            name = RARRAY_AREF(pair, 1);
            // FIXME: in tests it turns out that kind, name = [:req] produces name to be false. Why?..
            if (NIL_P(name) || name == Qfalse) {
                // FIXME: can it be reduced to switch/case?
                if (kind == req || kind == opt) {
                    name = rb_str_new2("_");
                }
                else if (kind == rest || kind == keyrest) {
                    name = rb_str_new2("");
                }
                else if (kind == block) {
                    name = rb_str_new2("block");
                }
                else if (kind == nokey) {
                    name = rb_str_new2("nil");
                }
            }

            if (kind == req) {
                rb_str_catf(str, "%"PRIsVALUE, name);
            }
            else if (kind == opt) {
                rb_str_catf(str, "%"PRIsVALUE"=...", name);
            }
            else if (kind == keyreq) {
                rb_str_catf(str, "%"PRIsVALUE":", name);
            }
            else if (kind == key) {
                rb_str_catf(str, "%"PRIsVALUE": ...", name);
            }
            else if (kind == rest) {
                if (name == ID2SYM('*')) {
                    forwarding = 1;
                    rb_str_cat_cstr(str, "...");
                }
                else {
                    rb_str_catf(str, "*%"PRIsVALUE, name);
                }
            }
            else if (kind == keyrest) {
                rb_str_catf(str, "**%"PRIsVALUE, name);
            }
            else if (kind == block) {
                if (name == ID2SYM('&')) {
                    if (forwarding) {
                        rb_str_set_len(str, RSTRING_LEN(str) - 2);
                    }
                    else {
                        rb_str_cat_cstr(str, "...");
                    }
                }
                else {
                    rb_str_catf(str, "&%"PRIsVALUE, name);
                }
            }
            else if (kind == nokey) {
                rb_str_buf_cat2(str, "**nil");
            }

            if (i < RARRAY_LEN(params) - 1) {
                rb_str_buf_cat2(str, ", ");
            }
        }
        rb_str_buf_cat2(str, ")");
    }

    { // source location
        VALUE loc = rb_method_location(method);
        if (!NIL_P(loc)) {
            rb_str_catf(str, " %"PRIsVALUE":%"PRIsVALUE,
                        RARRAY_AREF(loc, 0), RARRAY_AREF(loc, 1));
        }
    }

    rb_str_buf_cat2(str, ">");

    return str;
}

#nameObject

Returns the name of the method.


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# File 'proc.c', line 1859

static VALUE
method_name(VALUE obj)
{
    struct METHOD *data;

    TypedData_Get_Struct(obj, struct METHOD, &method_data_type, data);
    return ID2SYM(data->me->called_id);
}

#original_nameObject

Returns the original name of the method.

class C
  def foo; end
  alias bar foo
end
C.instance_method(:bar).original_name # => :foo

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# File 'proc.c', line 1881

static VALUE
method_original_name(VALUE obj)
{
    struct METHOD *data;

    TypedData_Get_Struct(obj, struct METHOD, &method_data_type, data);
    return ID2SYM(data->me->def->original_id);
}

#ownerObject

Returns the class or module that defines the method. See also Method#receiver.

(1..3).method(:map).owner #=> Enumerable

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# File 'proc.c', line 1900

static VALUE
method_owner(VALUE obj)
{
    struct METHOD *data;
    TypedData_Get_Struct(obj, struct METHOD, &method_data_type, data);
    return data->me->owner;
}

#parametersArray

Returns the parameter information of this method.

def foo(bar); end
method(:foo).parameters #=> [[:req, :bar]]

def foo(bar, baz, bat, &blk); end
method(:foo).parameters #=> [[:req, :bar], [:req, :baz], [:req, :bat], [:block, :blk]]

def foo(bar, *args); end
method(:foo).parameters #=> [[:req, :bar], [:rest, :args]]

def foo(bar, baz, *args, &blk); end
method(:foo).parameters #=> [[:req, :bar], [:req, :baz], [:rest, :args], [:block, :blk]]

Returns:


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# File 'proc.c', line 2908

static VALUE
rb_method_parameters(VALUE method)
{
    const rb_iseq_t *iseq = rb_method_iseq(method);
    if (!iseq) {
	return rb_unnamed_parameters(method_arity(method));
    }
    return rb_iseq_parameters(iseq, 0);
}

#source_locationArray, Integer

Returns the Ruby source filename and line number containing this method or nil if this method was not defined in Ruby (i.e. native).

Returns ].

Returns:


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# File 'proc.c', line 2883

VALUE
rb_method_location(VALUE method)
{
    return method_def_location(rb_method_def(method));
}

#super_methodObject

Returns a Method of superclass which would be called when super is used or nil if there is no method on superclass.


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# File 'proc.c', line 3191

static VALUE
method_super_method(VALUE method)
{
    const struct METHOD *data;
    VALUE super_class, iclass;
    ID mid;
    const rb_method_entry_t *me;

    TypedData_Get_Struct(method, struct METHOD, &method_data_type, data);
    iclass = data->iclass;
    if (!iclass) return Qnil;
    if (data->me->def->type == VM_METHOD_TYPE_ALIAS) {
        super_class = RCLASS_SUPER(rb_find_defined_class_by_owner(data->me->defined_class,
            data->me->def->body.alias.original_me->owner));
        mid = data->me->def->body.alias.original_me->def->original_id;
    }
    else {
        super_class = RCLASS_SUPER(RCLASS_ORIGIN(iclass));
        mid = data->me->def->original_id;
    }
    if (!super_class) return Qnil;
    me = (rb_method_entry_t *)rb_callable_method_entry_with_refinements(super_class, mid, &iclass);
    if (!me) return Qnil;
    return mnew_internal(me, me->owner, iclass, data->recv, mid, rb_obj_class(method), FALSE, FALSE);
}

#to_sString #inspectString

Returns a human-readable description of the underlying method.

"cat".method(:count).inspect   #=> "#<Method: String#count(*)>"
(1..3).method(:map).inspect    #=> "#<Method: Range(Enumerable)#map()>"

In the latter case, the method description includes the “owner” of the original method (Enumerable module, which is included into Range).

inspect also provides, when possible, method argument names (call sequence) and source location.

require 'net/http'
Net::HTTP.method(:get).inspect
#=> "#<Method: Net::HTTP.get(uri_or_host, path=..., port=...) <skip>/lib/ruby/2.7.0/net/http.rb:457>"

... in argument definition means argument is optional (has some default value).

For methods defined in C (language core and extensions), location and argument names can't be extracted, and only generic information is provided in form of * (any number of arguments) or _ (some positional argument).

"cat".method(:count).inspect   #=> "#<Method: String#count(*)>"
"cat".method(:+).inspect       #=> "#<Method: String#+(_)>""

Overloads:


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# File 'proc.c', line 2951

static VALUE
method_inspect(VALUE method)
{
    struct METHOD *data;
    VALUE str;
    const char *sharp = "#";
    VALUE mklass;
    VALUE defined_class;

    TypedData_Get_Struct(method, struct METHOD, &method_data_type, data);
    str = rb_sprintf("#<% "PRIsVALUE": ", rb_obj_class(method));

    mklass = data->iclass;
    if (!mklass) mklass = data->klass;

    if (RB_TYPE_P(mklass, T_ICLASS)) {
        /* TODO: I'm not sure why mklass is T_ICLASS.
         * UnboundMethod#bind() can set it as T_ICLASS at convert_umethod_to_method_components()
         * but not sure it is needed.
         */
        mklass = RBASIC_CLASS(mklass);
    }

    if (data->me->def->type == VM_METHOD_TYPE_ALIAS) {
	defined_class = data->me->def->body.alias.original_me->owner;
    }
    else {
	defined_class = method_entry_defined_class(data->me);
    }

    if (RB_TYPE_P(defined_class, T_ICLASS)) {
	defined_class = RBASIC_CLASS(defined_class);
    }

    if (FL_TEST(mklass, FL_SINGLETON)) {
	VALUE v = rb_ivar_get(mklass, attached);

	if (data->recv == Qundef) {
	    rb_str_buf_append(str, rb_inspect(mklass));
	}
	else if (data->recv == v) {
	    rb_str_buf_append(str, rb_inspect(v));
	    sharp = ".";
	}
	else {
	    rb_str_buf_append(str, rb_inspect(data->recv));
	    rb_str_buf_cat2(str, "(");
	    rb_str_buf_append(str, rb_inspect(v));
	    rb_str_buf_cat2(str, ")");
	    sharp = ".";
	}
    }
    else {
        mklass = data->klass;
        if (FL_TEST(mklass, FL_SINGLETON)) {
            VALUE v = rb_ivar_get(mklass, attached);
            if (!(RB_TYPE_P(v, T_CLASS) || RB_TYPE_P(v, T_MODULE))) {
                do {
                   mklass = RCLASS_SUPER(mklass);
                } while (RB_TYPE_P(mklass, T_ICLASS));
            }
        }
	rb_str_buf_append(str, rb_inspect(mklass));
	if (defined_class != mklass) {
	    rb_str_catf(str, "(% "PRIsVALUE")", defined_class);
	}
    }
    rb_str_buf_cat2(str, sharp);
    rb_str_append(str, rb_id2str(data->me->called_id));
    if (data->me->called_id != data->me->def->original_id) {
	rb_str_catf(str, "(%"PRIsVALUE")",
		    rb_id2str(data->me->def->original_id));
    }
    if (data->me->def->type == VM_METHOD_TYPE_NOTIMPLEMENTED) {
        rb_str_buf_cat2(str, " (not-implemented)");
    }

    // parameter information
    {
        VALUE params = rb_method_parameters(method);
        VALUE pair, name, kind;
        const VALUE req = ID2SYM(rb_intern("req"));
        const VALUE opt = ID2SYM(rb_intern("opt"));
        const VALUE keyreq = ID2SYM(rb_intern("keyreq"));
        const VALUE key = ID2SYM(rb_intern("key"));
        const VALUE rest = ID2SYM(rb_intern("rest"));
        const VALUE keyrest = ID2SYM(rb_intern("keyrest"));
        const VALUE block = ID2SYM(rb_intern("block"));
        const VALUE nokey = ID2SYM(rb_intern("nokey"));
        int forwarding = 0;

        rb_str_buf_cat2(str, "(");

        for (int i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(params); i++) {
            pair = RARRAY_AREF(params, i);
            kind = RARRAY_AREF(pair, 0);
            name = RARRAY_AREF(pair, 1);
            // FIXME: in tests it turns out that kind, name = [:req] produces name to be false. Why?..
            if (NIL_P(name) || name == Qfalse) {
                // FIXME: can it be reduced to switch/case?
                if (kind == req || kind == opt) {
                    name = rb_str_new2("_");
                }
                else if (kind == rest || kind == keyrest) {
                    name = rb_str_new2("");
                }
                else if (kind == block) {
                    name = rb_str_new2("block");
                }
                else if (kind == nokey) {
                    name = rb_str_new2("nil");
                }
            }

            if (kind == req) {
                rb_str_catf(str, "%"PRIsVALUE, name);
            }
            else if (kind == opt) {
                rb_str_catf(str, "%"PRIsVALUE"=...", name);
            }
            else if (kind == keyreq) {
                rb_str_catf(str, "%"PRIsVALUE":", name);
            }
            else if (kind == key) {
                rb_str_catf(str, "%"PRIsVALUE": ...", name);
            }
            else if (kind == rest) {
                if (name == ID2SYM('*')) {
                    forwarding = 1;
                    rb_str_cat_cstr(str, "...");
                }
                else {
                    rb_str_catf(str, "*%"PRIsVALUE, name);
                }
            }
            else if (kind == keyrest) {
                rb_str_catf(str, "**%"PRIsVALUE, name);
            }
            else if (kind == block) {
                if (name == ID2SYM('&')) {
                    if (forwarding) {
                        rb_str_set_len(str, RSTRING_LEN(str) - 2);
                    }
                    else {
                        rb_str_cat_cstr(str, "...");
                    }
                }
                else {
                    rb_str_catf(str, "&%"PRIsVALUE, name);
                }
            }
            else if (kind == nokey) {
                rb_str_buf_cat2(str, "**nil");
            }

            if (i < RARRAY_LEN(params) - 1) {
                rb_str_buf_cat2(str, ", ");
            }
        }
        rb_str_buf_cat2(str, ")");
    }

    { // source location
        VALUE loc = rb_method_location(method);
        if (!NIL_P(loc)) {
            rb_str_catf(str, " %"PRIsVALUE":%"PRIsVALUE,
                        RARRAY_AREF(loc, 0), RARRAY_AREF(loc, 1));
        }
    }

    rb_str_buf_cat2(str, ">");

    return str;
}